Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposure in France: Impact of the Risk Models and Uncertainty Analysis
Catelinois, Olivier, Rogel, Agnes, Laurier, Dominique, Billon, Solenne, Hemon, Denis, Verger, Pierre, Tirmarche, Margot, Environmental Health Perspectives
OBJECTIVE: The inhalation of radon, a well-established human carcinogen, is the principal--and omnipresent--source of radioactivity exposure for the general population of most countries. Scientists have thus sought to assess the lung cancer risk associated with indoor radon. Our aim here is to assess this risk in France, using all available epidemiologic results and performing an uncertainty analysis.
METHODS: We examined the exposure-response relations derived from cohorts of miners and from joint analyses of residential case-control studies and considered the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurement campaigns conducted since the beginning of the 1980s by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety and the Directorate-General of Health in France. We quantified the uncertainties associated with risk coefficients and exposures and calculated their impact on risk estimates.
RESULTS: The estimated number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure ranges from 543 [90% uncertainty interval (UI), 75-1,097] to 3,108 (90% UI, 2,996-3,221), depending on the model considered. This calculation suggests that from 2.2% (90% UI, 0.3-4.4) to 12.4% (90% UI, 11.9-12.8) of these deaths in France may be attributable to indoor radon.
DISCUSSION: In this original work we used different exposure-response relations from several epidemiologic studies and found that regardless of the relation chosen, the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon appears relatively stable. Smokers can reduce their risk not only by reducing their indoor radon concentration but also by giving up smoking.
KEY WORDS: lung cancer, radiation, radon, risk assessment, uncertainty analysis. Environ Health Perspect 114:1361-1366 (2006). doi:10.1289/ehp.9070 available via http://dx.doi.org/ [Online 30 May 2006]
Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas of natural origin, produced by the disintegration of uranium and radium located in the earth's crust. Radon exposure, at various levels, is omnipresent for the general public. Radon inhalation is the main source of exposure to radioactivity for most people throughout the world [National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) 1999; National Council for Radiation Protection and Measurements 1984a, 1984b; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2003; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000]. Most inhaled radon is rapidly exhaled, but the inhaled decay products--readily deposited in the lung epithelium--irradiate sensitive cells in the airways and thereby enhance the risk of lung cancer. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer) and classified as a group 1 carcinogen (IARC 1988), based on the results of experimental animal and epidemiologic studies, in particular among uranium miners. In 1988, the available results came from studies of high exposure levels. Extrapolation of this risk to the general population, who are exposed to lower levels in residential settings, raised numerous questions.
In recent years, the average annual exposure of uranium miners has fallen to levels similar to the concentrations inhaled in some homes, and discussion today focuses on the transposition of the risk from occupational to general populations. Miners are almost all adult males, exposed in conditions different from residential exposure: they perform substantial amounts of heavy labor in an atmosphere polluted by dust and fumes. Several case-control studies of residential radon have tested the validity of this risk transposition in the past decade (Auvinen et al. 1996; Kreienbrock et al. 2001; Letourneau et al. 1994; Schoenberg et al. 1990), but lack of statistical power prevented most of them from showing a significant risk. …