An Analysis of Production, Prices, Exports and Packaging of Fish Industry in Pakistan
Shaikh, Rasool Bux, Memon, Abdul Ghani, Phulpoto, Lutuf Ali, Maitlo, Ghulam Murtaza, Economic Review
* Fish production increased from 446,000 tonnes in 1988 to 510,000 onnes in 1992, thus showing an average growth of 3.5 per cent, per annum.
* Export of fish and fish products increased from 47,000 tonnes worth $94.40 million in 1989-90 to 66,000 tonnes worth $114.71 million in 1991-92
We intend to study the production of Fish, its prices, export and packages process adopted for maintaining the quality of Fish for local consumption and for export purposes as Fish is the best animal protein for human consumption.
Pakistan possesses a large variety of fish, shrimps and prawns. In the territorial waters of the Mekran Coast, at least 1000 varieties are found. Marine fisheries account for about 81 per cent of total production.
Fish constitutes 90 per cent of the total marine catch. Shrimps, though accounting for only 10 percent of the production, are of much significance due to their value and demand in foreign markets. The production of inland fisheries is quite low in the absence of aquaculture activities, shortage of finishing gears and equipment, lack of trained and skilled manpower and inadequate handling, shortage of distribution facilities.
Pakistan has a coastline of 527 nautical miles and has an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extending offshore to 200 nautical miles. There are two main fishing areas Karachi Sindh extending south east from Karachi to the Indian border (about 180 miles) and the Makrancoast west of Karachi and along the coast of Balochistan to the Iranian border (about 350 miles).
The Sindh Coast with Karachi harbour as its main base, is characterised by broad continental shelf (extending about 60 nautical miles out from the coast to a depth of 200 meters) and by a muddy, easily trawlable bottom.
The Mekran Coast line is scatter populated, formed by large bays and has a narrow (25 to 35 miles wide) abruptly descending shelf, (1500 to 300m) and widely dispersed landing places. The bottom is mostly rocky and fishing is only possible within the narrow plain ground of the shelf.
Fish production increased from 446,000 tonnes in 1988 to 510,000 tonnes in 1992, thus showing an average growth of 3.5 per cent, per annum. Province wise fish production for the last five years is given in Table-I.
Out of the total production of fish about 32 per cent of the edible catch is consumed as fresh, eight per cent is for canning, freezing nine per cent, subsistence eight per cent and the remaining 43 per cent is for fish meal.
The export of shrimp in various forms is worth over 1661 million rupees. Shrimps are a source of high quality protein which is about 18-20% of fresh shrimp. In Pakistan shrimp production appears to have stabilised at around 20-30 thousand metric tons annually and the catch per unit effort has dropped with the increase in the number of trawlers.
Export of Fish
Pakistan exports considerable quantities of fish and fish products to European and Middle East countries. Export of fish and fish products increased from 47,000 tonnes worth $94.40 million in 1989-90 to 66,000 tonnes worth $114.71 million in 1991-92, thus showing an increase of 10 per cent annum in terms of value. Export of fish and fish preparation for the last three years is given in Table-II.
The per capita consumption of fish in the country is very low i.e. 2 kg. Though the fisheries sector's contribution, to the gross domestic product of Pakistan is small, it is an important source of foreign exchange. Pakistan earned about $115 million from the exports of fish and shrimp products in 1991-92 which is 1.7 per cent of our total export earnings.
The principal importing countries during the year 1991-92 were Japan, USA, UK, and Sri Lanka.
The basic functions of a package for food and food products are to protect the product against physical damage, chemical changed and to present the product to the consumer in the most attractive manner, the packaging requirements of food and food products are influenced by the types of processing and merchandising that may be applied to them. …