Health Services for Special Needs Children in Pennsylvania Schools

By Bradford, Bradley J.; Heald, Pamela et al. | Journal of School Health, August 1994 | Go to article overview

Health Services for Special Needs Children in Pennsylvania Schools


Bradford, Bradley J., Heald, Pamela, Petrie, Shirley, Journal of School Health


School health programs traditionally encompass health services, health instruction, and fostering a safe school environment. Historically, school health services were provided by nurses, nurse assistants, physician consultants, and appropriate administrative personnel. Specific services included mandated screening for such conditions as tuberculosis and scoliosis, verification of immunizations, and meeting the needs of children with chronic illnesses in the school setting. In the 1990s, integration of primary care services through school-based clinics has added to activities of school health programs which traditionally offered only mandated screenings.[1]

Recent public policy debates centered on both the efficacies of traditional school health programs and their positioning for management of chronically ill students who come to school with a new set of morbidities and technological dependencies. Reports from school personnel as well as the literature support the fact that more chronically ill children, particularly technology dependent children, are present in regular school settings.[2] The individuality of chronically ill children in schools must be understood: some have chronic illnesses with disabilities that create medical and educational problems; other have conditions with attendant treatments which affect the school environment.[3] While the number of such children has not been documented, the effect these children have on school health programs is significant and will continue to grow.

Recent school health literature has addressed the impact that chronically ill, technology dependent children have on programmatic, administrative, and legal issues in schools.[4] Children who are graduates of NICUs or who have cancer or other complex medical disorders present challenges to educators, schools, nurses, and physicians interfacing both within and outside the school setting.[5,6] Little data exist on the growing population of chronically ill children in schools or on the preparedness of the present school nurse and existing school health programs to deal with them. Coordination of multidisciplinary care, education of school personnel, and actual costs of integrating such students are issues just now being addressed.[7]

SURVEY PLANNING

This survey determined the number and kind of special needs children in regular school settings in Pennsylvania. A 15-item questionnaire was mailed to all school nurses in Pennsylvania (N = 1,934)in spring 1992. Surveys were coded to assure anonymity of respondents. After two mailings, 965 (50%) questionnaires were returned. Questions were designed to elicit information about the nature and characteristics of the school's population and personnel. Responses were subjected to a standard descriptive statistical analysis.

SURVEY RESULTS

Responses revealed several interesting observations regarding special needs children in Pennsylvania public schools and the attendant nursing and school health-related services. Roughly 40% of nurses (N = 388) worked in rural areas or small towns, 208 (22%) in urban areas, and 245 (25%) in the suburbs.

School health program personnel and the nature of their association are reporte in Table 1. Most programs reported employing a full-time registered nurse and a part-time physician. Only 164 (17%) respondents reported pediatricians affiliated with their schools with 69% using a general practitioner or family practitioner. School physicians are primarily involved in performing physical examinations (n = 901, 93%) and athletic physicals (n = 437, 45%). Only a minority of physicians are involved in health education (7%), family planning (9%), or consultation in a school district (9%). Few respondents reported providing services (other than state-mandated screenings) such as mental health counseling (n = 227, 24%), family planning (n = 54, 6%), and physicals for a driver's license (n = 93, 10%).

Table 2 defines the population of chronically ill children using school health services. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Health Services for Special Needs Children in Pennsylvania Schools
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.