Validation of the Multiple Language Versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 for Refugee Adolescents

By Bean, Tammy; Derluyn, Ilse et al. | Adolescence, Spring 2007 | Go to article overview

Validation of the Multiple Language Versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 for Refugee Adolescents


Bean, Tammy, Derluyn, Ilse, Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth, Broekaert, Eric, Spinhoven, Philip, Adolescence


INTRODUCTION

During the last 20 years, there has been a substantial influx of immigrants and refugees to Europe (Eurostat, 2002). This has led to many more schools in Dutch and Belgian metropolitan areas providing education for children and adolescents who do not speak the language of the host country fluently. The transition from one country to another implies changes and difficulties such as the loss of social networks, changes in work status as well as encountering discrimination that can be very distressing (Vinokurov, Trickett, & Birman, 2002).

The traditional higher-order latent structure of internalizing (overcontrolling) and externalizing (undercontrolling) problems have for many years been a useful framework for emotional distress and maladaptive behaviors of children and adolescents (e.g., Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1978; Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002). In recent years, Krueger and colleagues (2001) confirmed the usefulness of this dichotomy in explaining the covariance among adult mental health and personality disorders. Moreover, Miller and colleagues (2003) have put forward an internalizing/externalizing model to explain the reactions of traumatic stress among adult combat veterans. The internalizing/ externalizing model seems to provide an adequate framework in which traumatic stress reactions and/or (comorbid) psychopathology can be understood.

The literature on the mental health of refugee adolescents depicts a high prevalence of psychosocial symptoms reported by refugee adolescents (Felsman, Leong, Johnson, & Felsman, 1990; Sack et al., 1993; Sourander, 1998; Smith, Perrin, Yule, Hacam, & Stuvland, 2002). The most frequently reported symptoms are somatic complaints, anxiety, depression, and (post)traumatic stress reactions. Unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) run an especially high risk for developing psychopathology due to separation from primary caregivers, exposure to sequential stressful events, limited educational opportunities, and conditions in asylum centers during a very vulnerable developmental period (Felsman et al., 1990; Sourander, 1998). High comorbidity has been documented between reactions to traumatic stress and other disorders such as depression (Sack et al., 1993) and anxiety (Warshaw et al., 1993). Significant adults in the lives of adolescents (i.e., caregivers, teachers) often report a lower prevalence of internalizing problems than do the adolescents themselves since they have difficulty determining the extent to which the adolescents suffer from psychological distress.

On the other hand, perceiving the disturbing nature of externalizing problems is not difficult. Adolescents with conduct problems have been found to be referred much sooner and more often to professional mental healthcare services than adolescents with internalizing problems (Wu et al., 1999). The literature on conduct problems of refugee adolescents is very limited. Allwood, Bell-Dolan, & Husain (2002) found a strong association between witnessing of organized violence and exhibiting aggressive behavior. Jensen and Shaw (1993) suggest that adolescents who have witnessed or taken part in a war are more likely to show delinquent or anti-social behavior. This opinion is, however, not supported in four studies which evaluated the delinquent and aggressive behaviors of refugee adolescents (Raboteg-Saric, Zuzul, & Kerestes, 1994; Mollica et al., 1997; Rousseau, Drapeau, & Corin, 1998; Sourander, 1998). Different authors (i.e., Pynoos & Nader, 1993) report that adolescents may temporarily show increased risk behavior following the witnessing/experiencing of a traumatic event. Moreover, several studies have found high levels of comorbidity between externalizing behavior and experiencing traumatic stress reactions among American adolescents (Deykin & Buka, 1997; Wozniak et al., 1999).

The "pathway" to professional mental healthcare for refugee adolescents has more barriers than for native adolescents in host countries (e. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Validation of the Multiple Language Versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 for Refugee Adolescents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.