De la Campagne a la Ville a la Recherche De Protection : Le Cas Colombien Du Deplacement Force

By Perez, Flor Edilma Osorio | Refuge, Winter 2007 | Go to article overview

De la Campagne a la Ville a la Recherche De Protection : Le Cas Colombien Du Deplacement Force


Perez, Flor Edilma Osorio, Refuge


Abstract

This article discusses some dynamics of internal forced displacement, which has occurred at a high level in Columbia over the last decade as a result of the civil war which the country is going through. Influenced by the rural-urban population flow, peasants flee from their homes to the imagined safety and security of the cities. Bogota, for example, the seat of government and of all public institutions, is experiencing rapid urbanization, as distinct from a deruralization process which is transforming the whole country. When displaced people are able to meet with others in similar circumstances they are able to establish new improvised ties of sociability, fragmented and ambiguous as they are, and enables them to find some solutions to their circumstances. Despite the precariousness that each day brings, the desplazados (displaced) live in expectation of a better future, despite having no other place to go and being surrounded by a weariness caused by instability and uncertainty.

Resume

Le present article traite de quelques dynamiques du deplacement force interne, present de facon importante en Colombie pendant la derniere decennie a cause de la guerre interne que connait ce pays. Suivant le flux ruralurbain, les paysans fuient leur domicile pour aller vers la ville. L'imaginaire de securite des villes, comme par exemple Bogota ou sont presents le gouvernement et toutes les institutions publiques, est en train de produire une urbanisation acceleree face a une deruralisation qui transforme l'ensemble du pays. La rencontre avec d'autres deplaces dans les memes circonstances que soi permet de tisser de nouvelles sociabilites improvisees, fragmentees et ambigues et rend possible de trouver quelques reponses a leur situation. Malgre une precarite quotidienne, les desplazados (deplaces) soutiennent l'attente d'un futur meilleur, a defaut d'autres horizons et au sein d'une lassitude provoquee par l'instabilite et l'incertitude.

J'ai vu la fumee et les flammes monter jusqu'au ciel. << Mi gente >> fuir de leurs maisons. Cris, horreur, pleurs et deuil. La mort est en liberte. Ta vie est en jeu, ron sang est le pari. Ils viennent avec des armes a feu, la mort est en liberte. Colombia est en jeu. Dans cette guerre maudite, autant de pauvres autant de morts. le veux retourner au bord de ma riviere, je veux retourner a mon village. Aidez-nous mon Dieu a eteindre cet enfer (1).

En Colombie, pres de quatre millions de personnes ont du fuir leur domicile pour echapper aux groupes armes et a la violence d une guerre de plus en plus presente et complexe (2) qui laisse sur son passage mort, desolation, deracinement et douleur. Les expulsions, deplacement force de la population, sont devenues une expression quotidienne dramatiquement banale de la violence armee. Elles marquent une rupture brutale et radicale avec la communaute et le territoire d'origine; elles traduisent une privation violente des repares materiels et symboliques qui fondent l'identite des individus et des familles qui en sont victimes. Pour les desplazados (deplaces), ecarteles entre un present amer, deja inscrit dans le passe, et un futur incertain, le desespoir est absolu. Alors, ou chercher protection? Les villes et centres peuples, surtout les plus importants, sont les elus. L'imaginaire de securite dans les villes, ou sont presents le gouvernement et toutes les institutions publiques, est en train de produire une urbanisation acceleree face a une deruralisation qui transforme l'ensemble du pays.

Ces reflexions suivent une partie de ma these doctorale qui a etudiee la situation generale du deplacement en Colombie, en accordant une importance particuliere a la rupture et la reconstruction du territoire, des referents identitaires et de l'action collective (3). Le texte se divisa en quatre parties. Nous montrons d'abord le processus de deruralisation et d'urbanisation. Nous exposons ensuite quelques dynamiques du deplacement oriente vers Bogota, la villa capitale, d'apres les temoignages des deplaces. …

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