Status of Environmental Health in Nepal

By Nepal, Pashupati | Contributions to Nepalese Studies, January 2006 | Go to article overview

Status of Environmental Health in Nepal


Nepal, Pashupati, Contributions to Nepalese Studies


Introduction

The study of diseases is really the study of man and his environment. The interplay and integration of two ecological universes- the internal environment of man himself and the external environment- determine the health status of an individual, a community or a nation, which surround him. World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. It is evident from the definition that there is rather an extension of elements of health as social well being than a limited general concepts of health as against sickness. In the modern concept, disease is due to a disturbance in the delicate balance between man and his environment. Three ecological factors (agent, host and environment) are responsible for disease. The disease agent of disease is usually identified with the help of laboratory. The host is available for study; but the environment from which the patient comes is largely unknown. Yet frequently, the key to the nature, occurrence. prevention and control of diseases lies in the environment. Without such knowledge, this key may not be available to the physician who desires to cure disease, prevent or control it (Park 1994). Hence, the study of diseases is really the study of man and his environment.

Many of the health problems have been perceived to be the direct fallout of the environment. The high incidence of heart disease and cancer, for instance, has been increasing linked to diet, lifestyle, exposure to toxic wastes, etc., all of which, can be controlled by changes in a given environment (Voluntary Health Association of India 1992).

Disease can not arise without the convergence at a certain point in time and space of two orders of factors: factors that take the form of an environmental stimulus ... and second, factors that condition the response of the tissues. These stimuli, these challenges to adjustments, are not the same in every environment. They vary with ... location (Husain 1994)

Population explosion, deteriorating environmental conditions and resource constraints to tackle the key environmental health problems have affected human health and the health of the ecosystem. Planners and policy makers in Nepal are more concerned today than ever in the past about the deteriorating environmental health issues. The ability to link health and environmental data, and thereby to understand relationships between the levels of exposure and health outcome, is clearly vital in attempts to control exposures and protect health. This capability is particularly important for countries like Nepal where the issues of environmental pollution have traditionally taken a second place to demands "for economic development (UNEP/WHO 1996). However, the present study attempts to present the environment health hazard pathway and the linkage between environment and health in Nepal with special reference to environmental pollution. Simultaneously, some recommendations are suggested to keep positive link between environment and health in Nepal.

The Environment Health Hazard Pathway

Environmental health hazards take many forms. They range from traditional hazards such as human faeces, in densely populated areas, to the wide mix of air pollutants emitted by road vehicles. The hazard pathway is described in Figure 1. In most cases, the starting point is some form of human activity and rarely, a natural process, which release pollutants into the environment (UNEP/WHO 1996)

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Emission Sources and Processes: The process of release of pollutants is known as emission. The emission of pollutants due to the human activities are highly varied with time and space. The major sources of emission include mining and quarrying, energy production, manufacturing, transport, agriculture, domestic activities and waste management but other sources such as tourism, forestry and commercial services may also be important. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Status of Environmental Health in Nepal
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.