Self-Employment through Entrepreneurship Development Programme
Quraishi, Mahmud, Economic Review
Mahmud Quraishi, Chief Executive, Q. Consult is well known among professional circles in Pakistan as an eminent Management and Human Resources consultant. He has worked on a number of projects as national and international expert for the ILO and APO and covered 28 countries of Asia and Pacific region. Mr. Quraishi is Member of the British Institute of Management of the Chartered Institute of Transport and Fellow of the Institute of Motor Industry (UK). He is also Member of the National Working Group of Industrial Training Pakistan., Member of MAP and Member of the Seminar/Training Committee of the Employers Federation of Pakistan.
Most important factors affecting manpower utilisation and unemployment are high rate of population growth unmatched by adequate investment to ensure new employment opportunities. This essentially reflects the structural imbalance in the process of development. Pakistan with an estimated population of 120 million and growth rate of 3.2 per cent per annum is facing an alarming situation of unemployment and under-employment. Pakistan's investment rate of 17 percent of GDP is substantially below the average low income countries (29% per annum of GDP) and the growth rate of GDP at 3 per cent per annum in the eighties as barely adequate to create additional employment opportunities. Therefore, it would appear that the imbalance between the supply of people needing employment and demand for their services is almost certain to grow unless urgent measures are taken.
As per the National Power Commission (NMC) Report the labour force is growing at the rate of 3.3 per cent, i.e. one million per annum. The economy is therefore faced with the formidable challenge of creating 1.25 million jobs annually, if unemployment and under-employment situation is not to worsen
Government Strategy for Employment Generation and Manpower Development
The NMC Report recommends the following Government strategies for employment generation and manpower development:
a) Primary emphasis on employment generation in rural areas and surrounding small towns through development of physical and social infrastructure and rural industries as the leading sector to attack under-employment and low incomes and drastically slow down rural-urban migration.
b) Major effort at accelerating development and increasing productivity of small scale/informal sector enterprises and to generate employment in less developed regions.
c) A concerted effort to radically improve the participation of female in income generating economic activities.
d) Special measures to reduce unemployment among the educated not through unproductive public sector employment in administrative jobs but to meet real needs of the economy especially in the social sector and private sector employment.
e) Development of a well trained skilled labour force to help achieve significant gains in productivity and efficiency primarily through the efforts of the private sector.
f) A comprehensive programme to meet high-level manpower needs in science and technology to take Pakistan into the twenty-first century.
g) Inculcate work ethics in the labour force so as to control the cost of production and ensure labour discipline.
h) Full support to Pakistanis seeking employment opportunities abroad and assistance in productive re-absorption of return migrants.
i) Increased opportunities for self-employment for those with education, skills and enterprises especially through better access to credit facilities.
j) Strengthening the institutional machinery for effective monitoring and implementation of policies for human resource development. A special committee of the Cabinet consisting of key ministries and headed by the Prime Minister will oversee developments in this critical field.
Role of Employment Exchange
The objectives of Employment Exchanges under the Directorate of Manpower and Training are to "facilitate the employment process and thus gain the optimum utilisation of the labour force in the national economy. …