Transition and Native American Youth: A Follow-Up Study of School Leavers on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation

By Shafer, Michael S.; Rangasamy, Ramasamy | The Journal of Rehabilitation, January-March 1995 | Go to article overview

Transition and Native American Youth: A Follow-Up Study of School Leavers on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation


Shafer, Michael S., Rangasamy, Ramasamy, The Journal of Rehabilitation


There exists an extreme paucity of research regarding the post-school outcomes of disabled Native American youth. In addition, there exists a significant need to assist Native American youth with disabilities to make a smooth transition from school to work and adult living. The importance of this transition is especially significant for Native Americans, since the median age of this population is 21.3 years of age (Arizona State Data Center, 1990). In most Native American communities, a majority of these youth are in school, but many may drop out before completing high school. For example, researchers have noted the school dropout rate is higher among American Indians than for any other ethnic minority group (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980; 1983). In 1988, the dropout rate was 35.5% among American Indians compared to 28.8% for the U.S. population. In the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, 19% of the American Indians in the 8th grade indicated that they expected they would drop out of high school or that high school graduation would be the terminal point of their education. Furthermore, a very small percentage of American Indian parents expected their children to attend college (National Center for Education Statistics, 1988). A recent survey conducted by the Bureau of Indian Affairs identified 6,816 school-aged students between 5-21 years as disabled (O'Connell, 1987). The most prevalent handicapping conditions included learning disability, speech impairment, and mental retardation. The other less visible types of disabilities found in Native American youth are those associated with psychosocial problems. For example, the suicide rate for Native American youth in some communities is 3 to 10 times the rates for the general population (O'Connell, 1987). Substance abuse, especially alcohol, is also 2 to 3 times the rate for non-Indian youth (O'Connell, 1987). For a variety of reasons, then, Native American youth are at greater risk for educational failure and, ultimately, economic disability.

During the past few years, the U.S. Congress has undertaken a number of legislative initiatives designed specifically to enhance the employment opportunity for persons with disabilities.

First, the 1986 re-authorization of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act (P.L. 99-506), provided specific mandates for the provision of supported employment and rehabilitation engineering services. Second, the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (P.L. 101-336) in 1990 provides for specific safeguards and accommodations for persons with disabilities who are seeking entry to the world of work. Third, and perhaps most essential to this project, the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA) of 1990 provides specific mandates for transition planning and rehabilitation counseling services for students with disabilities. These initiatives, in combination with modifications in the Social Security Administration and other federal programs, have signaled a comprehensive and coordinate effort on the part of the federal government to enhance the employment opportunities for persons with disabilities. Unfortunately, these initiatives have not been fully implemented among Native American reservation communities.

One of the major reasons that transition has not yet been fully adopted among Native American communities may be that the concept is itself based upon the values of an urban, Anglo culture. For example, two of the dominant themes of transition, as defined in federal policy, are gainful, competitive employment and emancipation from the family home. These experiences, however, are not universally valued by Native Americans and, in particular, those Native Americans residing on reservations and maintaining traditional tribal customs. In these communities, the values of cooperation, interdependence and communal responsibility and action often conflict with the values of independence and competition that are often implied by transition services. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Transition and Native American Youth: A Follow-Up Study of School Leavers on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.