An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies
Ifedili, Chika Josephine A., Ojogwu, C. N., Education
Globalisation can be seen as advancing worldwide interdependence of people with the use of the technological discoveries. Oladipipo (2000) defined globalisation as the increasing linkages among countries or deeper integration of the world economy by trade, finance, direct investment and technology. Intellectuals of various countries work outside the boundaries of their various educational systems. This is because they are integral part of the worldwide educational system. Globalisation poses new challenges at a time when nation states are no longer the sole providers of higher education and the academic community no longer holds the monopoly on decision-making in education. Such challenges not only addresses issues of access, equity, funding and quality but also those of national sovereignty, cultural diversity, poverty and sustainable development.
Globalisation has enriched the world technologically, educationally, culturally, politically and otherwise. Despite these positive effects, many people fear globalisation. Aina (1999) arrived at a conclusion that globalisation is nothing but a new phase of capitalism with its traditional functions of building structures of exploitation, accumulation, inequality and polarization. For him, globalisation is a remaking the world in the image of the western man. Orisakwe (2002), believed that globalisation has resulted in increasing indebtness, dwindling foreign exchange earning, collapsed social and physical infrastructure, increasing crime rate, militant ethnic nationalism, social and religious intolerance etc. Emeh (2002) was of the opinion that globalisation erodes the power of states and governments, and subjects developing nations to the whims and caprices of western dominated organizations. Omatseye (2003) wondered why Nigerians at home had only the tendency to consume and not to produce within the context of the new technological revolution. Ogude (2000), opined that behind the unlimited access to information guaranteed by globalisation, lies a deep-seated, sinister and, almost obsessive craving for world domination. For him, those who possess the economic, the technological, the military and the political power can shape the structure and direction of the global village. Whatever may be the individual opinion, Nigeria has become an integral part of the global village. The only thing that should be done is to identify the problems of globalisation and proffer solutions to the problems.
Nigerian educational policy can be said to be all that needed to be done to train the minds of the citizens. The policies are accepted guidelines for implementation in order to achieve peace and community development. A policy according to Nwagwu (2002) symbolizes the official position taken in the name or on behalf of a given community but it can actually reflect the private position or interest of only a small segment of the relevant society. The legal basis of education policies can be traced back to the Charter of the United Nations Organization of 1948, which made it a legal right according to Article 26 of Human Right Declaration that:
a. Everyone has the right to education. This shall be free at least in the elementary and primary stages.
b. Elementary education shall be compulsory while technical and professional education shall be made generally available.
c. Higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
d. Parents have a prior fight to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
Nigeria was a signatory to the abovementioned Human Right. Nigerian educational policy has passed through many stages of development. However many factors have militated against its success. These are from poor implementation ranging from inadequate financing to political instability on the part of the government and from corruption and dishonesty on the part of the individuals. Before 1970, education in Nigeria was controlled by many agencies like the federal, state and local government, missionaries, communities and individuals. …