Preventing Intimate Partner Violence before It Starts

By Mahoney, Diana | Clinical Psychiatry News, November 2007 | Go to article overview

Preventing Intimate Partner Violence before It Starts


Mahoney, Diana, Clinical Psychiatry News


Removing female victims of intimate partner violence from their abusive environments is a temporary fix to a long-term problem. In fact, stopgap measures that fail to either address the underlying risk factors for victimization or to appreciate the societal norms that perpetuate victimization can undermine the long-term success of intervention efforts.

Defined as physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse by an intimate partner in order to gain control and power, intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that U.S. women aged 18 and older experience an estimated 5.3 million IPV incidents per year, including 1.5 million who experience rape or physical assault.

Additionally, nearly 2 million injuries and 1,300 deaths nationwide--predominantly among women--can be attributed to IPV.

Multiple studies show that IPV incidents generally are not one-time events. Rather, they persist over time and through multiple relationships.

In a cohort study of 3,429 women aged 18-64 from a U.S. health maintenance organization conducted by the Seattle-based Group Health Cooperative's Center for Health Studies, 44% of the women reported having experienced at least one incident of physical, psychological, or sexual intimate partner violence during their lifetime.

Nearly half of those women reported being abused by more than one partner, and up to 13% reported that the incidents persisted for more than 20 years. As has been documented in previous studies, rates of IPV in this population were higher among younger women, women with lower income and less education, single mothers, and those who had been abused as children (Am. J. Prev. Med. 2006;30:447-57).

The public health implications of both the prevalence and chronicity of intimate partner violence in terms of women's physical, mental, and social functioning are considerable. A second study using the same HMO data set demonstrated that, compared with women who never experienced IPV, those with IPV exposure within the previous 5 years had significantly higher rates of both severe and minor depressive symptoms, a higher number of physical symptoms, and lower mental and social functioning scores.

Duration of IPV exposure was significantly associated with worse outcomes across all measures. Interestingly, women who had experienced recent or persistent physical and/or sexual IPV had mental and social functioning scores that were the same or lower than scores for individuals with chronic allergies, chronic back pain, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and osteoarthritis (Am. J. Prev. Med. 2006;30:458-66).

Health care use and annual total health care costs are significantly higher in women with a history of IPV, compared with those with no history. According to Dr. Frederick P. Rivara of the Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center in Seattle: "Women with a history of IPV have increased utilization across all types of health services," including mental health, substance abuse, hospital outpatient care, emergency department care, and acute inpatient care during and after periods of IPV.

In a longitudinal cohort study of 3,333 women, Dr. Rivara and colleagues showed that the annual health care costs of women with a history of IPV were 19% higher than women without an IPV history, and that the increase persisted for more than 5 years after IPV had ended (Am. J. Prev. Med. 2007;32:89-96). With an IPV prevalence of 44% as indicated in the HMO study mentioned earlier, "for every 100,000 women enrollees [in the HMO], IPV is responsible for $19.3 million in excess health care costs each year," Dr. Rivara said.

Not included in this estimate are the emotional, physical, and economic costs associated with caring for the next-generation of IPV victims. A review of 31 studies related to children witnessing violence revealed strong evidence that children who see violence at home exhibit a variety of behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and longer-term developmental problems that substantially increase the public health burden (J. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Preventing Intimate Partner Violence before It Starts
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.