Asset Securitization: An Effective Tool
Aidun, Christopher K., American Banker
In the last 10 years, securitization of short- and medium-term assets has become a common tool of commercial finance.
Just a minor source of finance before 1985, explosive growth in asset securitization began in that year when Salomon Brothers securitized Marine Midland Banks' automobile loans and leases in the first public offering of asset-backed securities. The asset-backed market was responsible for over $75 billion in newly issued securities in 1994 and $45.8 billion in securities in the first half of 1995.
The development of asset-backed securities markets can be attributed to their success in serving many masters well. For would-be borrowers, asset- backed securities represent access to the world's most efficient sources of U.S. dollar capital - the U.S. and Eurodollar capital markets.
For investment bankers, the development of asset-backed securities has been a natural extension of the mortgage-backed securities products developed over the last 25 years.
But perhaps the greatest force driving asset-backed securities markets has been commercial banks. Asset-backed securities have given commercial banks the opportunity to generate commercial loans by leveraging their capital to exponentially greater levels than available in conventional loans or other extensions of credit.
Billions of dollars of asset-backed securities have been created under commercial bank sponsorship, enabling banks to offer capital markets financing to their traditional commercial loan customer base. In the process, sponsoring banks have converted loan asset income into fee income, leveraged capital income, and in some cases, both.
Much of the innovation in asset-backed securities programs was motivated by the desire of commercial banks to remove loan assets from their balance sheets while maintaining income from those loan relationships. This motivation was a response to federal bank regulators' requirements developed during the last decade that banks increase their capital ratios (i.e., the ratio of equity capital to a bank's assets).
Requirements were imposed in response to the federal regulators' judgment that insufficient levels of bank capital threatened the overall stability of the financial system.
Early asset securitization programs involved direct sales of a customer's loan assets by a bank to a securitization "conduit," with the selling bank maintaining a level of credit recourse or providing some other form of credit enhancement. Financial Accounting Standard No. 77 permitted a selling bank to remove the assets sold from its balance sheet under generally accepted accounting principles, thereby shrinking the selling bank's asset size and improving its capital ratio.
Federal regulators, however, concluded that the risk retained by a selling bank was effectively all of the real credit risk in the transaction. Accordingly, federal regulators refused to permit banks selling assets in securitization transactions with even limited recourse to treat those securitization transactions as sales under regulatory accounting principles.
The bankers' problem remained. Under federal banking regulations, making loans required capital to be maintained at 8% of the loan assets. The cost of this capital could not be passed onto the bank's best customers because of competitive loan pricing from other banks, finance companies, and other sources of financing.
Asset securitization solved the bankers' problem: securitization gave bank sponsors a source of fee income while offering their customers a competitive source of credit. …