America, North Korea and Iran

By Shuja, Sharif | Contemporary Review, Winter 2007 | Go to article overview

America, North Korea and Iran


Shuja, Sharif, Contemporary Review


THE declared view of the Bush Administration is that North Korea is a rogue state with a record of terrorism. It abandoned a 1994 agreement with the Clinton Administration to dismantle its nuclear programme, expelled inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in December 2002 and withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It has, in Kim Jong-il, a leader who is both totalitarian and unpredictable. He is a dictator who has watched two million of his compatriots die of starvation and has imprisoned at least 200,000 others. If he gets usable nuclear weapons, he might pose a significant threat to the United States or supply nuclear weapons to terrorists. He must, therefore, be prevented from acquiring such weapons.

North Korea is a small and backward country with a population of 23 million possessing extremely limited military capabilities and an economy that has disintegrated in the past decade or more. It could, therefore, be strategically contained, even if it did become nuclear armed. This is especially so if, in fact, its nuclear programme is intended to be a deterrent against a feared US attack. The Australian strategic analyst Paul Monk notes:

  The problem is not limited, however, to whether a nuclear-armed North
  Korea could be strategically contained. While it could, in all
  probability, be deterred from attacking either the US or its allies,
  its blatant breakout from the NPT sets a dangerous precedent that
  could lead to the complete breakdown of that treaty. Japan and South
  Korea, it is feared, might go nuclear. Iran might feel it could
  violate or renounce the NPT with impunity. There could be an arms race
  in East Asia, for which North Korea was merely the catalyst. [1]

The solidarity between the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK), however, has been steadily weakening, and this has constrained Washington's policy options regarding North Korea's nuclear programme. The administration of President Roh Moo-hyun has been reluctant to consider any hardline tactics, at times even working to deflect US pressure. [2] As a result, policy coordination with Japan is increasingly important for the United States, and the course of the Japan-Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) relationship will influence near-term US strategy and tactics.

If the Six-Party Talks (involving the US, North Korea, Japan, China, Russia and South Korea) remain unproductive, the United States will eventually have to make a strategic decision about if and how it wants to try to break the stalemate and, regardless of the choice it makes, strong support from Japan will be critical to success. [3] Broadly speaking, US policy makers can either seek to apply greater economic and diplomatic pressure on North Korea, or they can pursue a more conciliatory approach. [4] The first option will be difficult without support from China and South Korea, but it could yield some results if Japan enthusiastically backs a hard-line policy. An aggressive US strategy would fall apart, however, if support from Japan or the Japanese public wavered. [5]

North Korea

From the North Korean perspective, a nuclear weapons programme is potentially crucial for their bargaining power with the world community, especially the United States. This is, in part, due to the North Korean idea of 'juche'. Juche, which is the official state ideology, is based on the principle that 'man is the master of everything and decides everything'. Essentially, juche governs the ideology that man must be self-reliant and stand independently of others. According to this principle, then, the nuclear arms programme, from the North Korean perspective, is entirely necessary in maintaining self-reliance, independence and, more importantly, survival in the world community.

In addition, North Korea's missile development has been a source of foreign currency through its exports to 'rogue' nations such as Iran, Syria and Libya. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

America, North Korea and Iran
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.