Jordanian Working Women's Perception of Life Difficulties

By Abueita, Siham D. | Journal of International Women's Studies, November 15, 2005 | Go to article overview

Jordanian Working Women's Perception of Life Difficulties

Abueita, Siham D., Journal of International Women's Studies


This study is an attempt to identify Jordanian working-women's perception of their life difficulties. Areas of life's difficulties include: psychological, social, political and career. Such difficulties were investigated across five variables: age, education, employment, years of experience and civil status. Each variable included subgroups. The sample consisted of 186 subjects living in the Amman district. Subjects responded to a questionnaire about life difficulties. The questionnaire's internal reliability as well as test-retest reliability ranged from .79 to .92. Statistical analysis of data consisted of ANOVA analysis of variance and the Scheffe test of differences between groups. Results were tested at the .5-level or better. Jordanian women reported significant differences in all four areas of life's difficulties.

Keywords: Working women, Life difficulties, Jordanian women


Research studies carried out in many countries report that women face difficulties, obstacles and inequalities in several aspects of life. That is mainly in education, career, social life, and political involvements. American women have been leaders in their efforts to advance women's rights. Women have been engaged in every facet of national and international affairs, such as policymaking, decision-making, arms control, trade, courtroom, and key positions in state departments.

However, Harrison (1997) reported that the transformation to a society of complete equality has not yet been fully realized. Bander (1997) documented that changes in law, politics and society have had significant impact on contemporary women's lives including their choice of careers. Yet, the battle of parity, equal opportunity and enlightened attitudes have not yet been completely won. McGivrney (1993) found that for British women, the most effective reentry threshold learning activities shared features common to all good community education. However, women experienced problems in moving from an informal to a formal education. This was largely due to lack of information and guidance, coherent learning Reuters, support and practical assistance.

Jordan has adopted many programs that aimed to enhance women's participation in the country's development and improve their life conditions. These programs have been designed to support women throughout the country. That is, in realizing a positive change in their lives, and improving conditions in the society as a whole. So, women's participation in the development process, both as a beneficiary and partner, is designed to correct the demographic balance, through the provision of literacy and education program as well as family participation in household affairs.

Jordanian Women's Life Conditions

Jordan has adopted legal frameworks regulating Jordanian women's rights based on broad equality basis with men. These frameworks emanated from the international agreements and declarations pertaining to women rights which Jordan has ratified. In addition, there are the articles of the Jordanian constitution (1990), which reinforced the Jordanian national charter. In which, article (8a) of chapter five reads; "Jordanian men and women are equal before the law with no discrimination between them in rights and duties", where\as in" (8;b). Women and men are partners in the growth and development of Jordanian society".

However, Jordanian women participation in decision-making positions is still limited. Three women were appointed as members in the Upper House. Only one woman succeeded in getting the membership at the Lower House of the Parliament in 1997 and 2001. One woman has been appointed Minister in every cabinet of Ministries. Five women joined the judicature office. In addition, the percentage of women's participation in political parties has been around 10 %. At the trade unions level, total women's participation has been 18 %.

The General Statistics Department (1999) clarified that Jordanian women prefer to work in public sectors particularly in education, health, and office work. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Jordanian Working Women's Perception of Life Difficulties


Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25,

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search


    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.