On the Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics of Some Subject-Like NPs in Croatian/Sintakticki, Semanticki I Pragmaticki Aspekti Nekih Kvazisubjektnih Imenskih Skupina U Hrvatskom Jeziku

By Belaj, Branimir; Kucanda, Dubravko | Suvremena Lingvistika, January 2007 | Go to article overview

On the Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics of Some Subject-Like NPs in Croatian/Sintakticki, Semanticki I Pragmaticki Aspekti Nekih Kvazisubjektnih Imenskih Skupina U Hrvatskom Jeziku


Belaj, Branimir, Kucanda, Dubravko, Suvremena Lingvistika


This paper analyzes the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of datives in sentences like Iskliznuo mi je tanjur iz ruke (lit. 'Slipped to me is plate from hand') and Vruce mi je (lit. 'To me is hot'). The first sentence contains two possible candidates for the subject function: the dative mi, which has some semantic and pragmatic subject properties, and the nominative NP tanjur, which controls agreement. The second sentence contains only the dative pronoun, which has the semantic and pragmatic but no syntactic subject properties. At first blush it seems that the first sentence has two subjects none of which, to paraphrase Keenan (1976), has a clear preponderance of subject-like properties. In this paper we shall argue that such non-canonical subject-like NPs are best described as quasi subjects, i. e., as NPs which have some morphosyntactic or semantic/pragmatic properties of subjects, but not sufficient properties to qualify as the subject of the sentence.

Key words: subject, quasi subject, syntactic functions of datives, morphosyntax, semantics, pragmatics, Croatian

Predmet je ovoga rada sintakticka vrijednost dativnih dopuna koje imaju semanticka i pragmaticka ka svojstva subjekta, ali nemaju formalna, odnosno nema srocnosti s predikatom preko prototipnoga pade'a subjekta--nominativa. Naime, hrvatske gramatike vrlo vjesto izbjegavaju uci dublje u raspravu kada su u pitanju sintakticke funkcije dativa u hrvatskom jeziku tipa Hladno mi je, Vruce mi je ... s jedne strane; Spava mi se, Kise mi se ... s druge ... i recimo Iskliznuo mi je tanjur iz ruke, Ispala mi je zlica na pod s trece strane, a sto je na neki nacin i razumljivo jer je rjesenje u nekim slucajevima nemoguce pronaci ako se ne zeli odstupiti od analize preko tradicijskih pojmova subjekta i objekta. Naime, tradicijski pojmovi subjekta i objekta u vecini su suvremenih lingvistickih teorija, pa tako i u hrvatskim gramatikama (npr. Katicic, 1991, Baric et al., 1995, Silic, Pranjkovic, 2005) opceprihvaceni termini koji se upotrebljavaju pri analizi sintaktickoga pola recenice, no pri tome uvijek treba imati na umu da su oni usto i puno siri filozofsko-logicki pojmovi koji onda po samoj naravi stvari u svoju definiciju odnosno, bolje receno, u svoj iskonski koncept ukljucuju i odredene znacenjske komponente. Stoga se, primjerice, vrlo cesto, posebno u znanstvenim raspravama, moze vidjeti da se govori o semantickim i pragmatickim svojstvima subjekta sto se u prototipnim slucajevima odnosi na agens i topic, a u pojedinim se funkcionalnosintaktickim teorijama oni i promatraju kroz prizmu semantickih funkcija (Dik, 1978, 1989) ili se cak i definiraju kao gramatikalizirane pragmaticke padezne uloge (Givon, 1984, 1990), pri cemu je subjekt primarni, a objekt sekundarni klauzalni topic). U analiziranim recenicama sintakticka funkcija imenskog izraza u dativu nije posve jasna; s jedne strane, dativ je kodiran kao indirektni objekt, a s druge strane, dativ ima semanticka i pragmaticka svojstva prototipnog subjekta. U recenicama s imenskim izrazom u dativu i imenskim izrazom u nominativu, prvi ima semanticka i pragmaticka svojstva subjekta, a drugi ima svojstva kodiranja (nominativ i kontrola srocnosti). Buduci da vecina definicija subjekta sadrzava mjesavinu morfosintaktickih, semantickih i pragmatickih kriterija, bilo bi potrebno te kriterije i terminoloski razlikovati.

Kljucne rijeci: subjekt, kvazisubjekt, sintakticke funkcije dativa, morfosintaksa, semantika, pragmatika, hrvatski jezik

1. Introduction

It has become common practice to begin most discussions of functional syntax with a comparison of a formalist and a functionalist approach to language. When formalism is mentioned, the first name that comes to mind is Chomsky. Functionalism, on the other hand, does not have one leading school of thought; several functional theories, or individuals, can be easily mentioned: the Prague School, Functional Grammar (Dik, 1978, 1989), Role and Reference Grammar (Foley and Van Valin, 1984, Van Valin and LaPolla 1997, Van Valin, 2005), Systemic Functional Grammar (Halliday, 1985), Givon (1984, 1990, 2001). …

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On the Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics of Some Subject-Like NPs in Croatian/Sintakticki, Semanticki I Pragmaticki Aspekti Nekih Kvazisubjektnih Imenskih Skupina U Hrvatskom Jeziku
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