A Model for Collaborative Teaching Teams in Counselor Education
Orr, Jonathan J., Hall, Stephanie F., Hulse-Killacky, Diana, Counselor Education and Supervision
Teaching's importance has increased for faculty members and is reflected in the selection criteria for new faculty, particularly those in counselor education. Thus, graduate programs need to provide students with opportunities to obtain teaching experience and enhance their pedagogical training. The collaborative teaching teams model is intended to assist counselor educators in preparing doctoral-level counseling students for careers in academia. Recommendations for model implementation are provided and specific examples are presented to demonstrate the use of this model in a counselor education and supervision doctoral program accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs.
The job responsibilities of faculty members have been changing steadily since World War II (Austin, 2002; Boyer, 1990; Ramsey, Cavallaro, Kiselica, & Zila, 2002; Rice, 1996). For faculty members at both research and liberal arts institutions, teaching increasingly has become more important (Meacham, 2002). Teaching's enhanced importance has resulted in an expanded definition of scholarship (Boyer, 1990), which in turn has altered the definition of faculty productivity. Specifically, the mission of institutions and the criteria used to determine faculty promotion and tenure have shifted in emphasis from solely focusing on research productivity to increasingly focusing on teaching and service activities that integrate scholarship (Finkelstein, 2003; Lucas, 1996; Meacham, 2002).
To be successful then, faculty members in any discipline, including counselor education, must master the core competencies of teaching, service, and scholarship (Adams, 2002; Austin, 2002; Boyer, 1990; Niles, Akos, & Cutler, 2001; Ramsey et al., 2002). Programs preparing doctoral students for careers in academia would reasonably be expected to embrace these same principles. In fact, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP; 2001) requires that doctoral programs in counselor education and supervision provide students with the opportunities to "develop collaborative relationships with program faculty in teaching, supervision, research, professional writing, and service to the profession and the public" (Doctoral Standards Counselor Education and Supervision, Section II, D.2). The collaborative teaching teams (CTT) model was created by the first and third authors in 2004 to meet the CACREP standards for developing collaborative relationships between doctoral students and faculty through teaching.
The purpose of this article is threefold. First, we discuss the importance of teaching in counselor education and the increasing need for teaching competence among counselor education graduates. Second, we introduce a model intended to enhance the pedagogical training of doctoral students in counselor education. Finally, we present the benefits and challenges of implementing such a model.
Teaching Is Important to Counselor Education
Greater emphasis on teaching for faculty members equates to greater need of teaching experience for job candidates. Graduates entering the job market, particularly those in counselor education, should be prepared to demonstrate greater knowledge and experience in teaching. In interviews conducted at community colleges, 4-year liberal arts colleges, master's institutions, and research institutions, Meacham (2002) found that administrators most valued a balanced combination of teaching, research, and service in new faculty. Rogers, Gill-Wigal, Harrigan, and Abbey-Hines (1998) examined faculty selection criteria and found that counselor education programs ranked teaching experience higher than publication activity, indicating the need for teaching experience in doctoral preparation.
Warnke, Bethany, and Hedstrom (1999) described the job search process in counselor education and concluded that doctoral students, early in their study programs, need to identify what experiences they require to increase their marketability for and knowledge about potential careers in academia. …