Examining Threats to the Economic Aspects of Globalization
Quirk, James M., International Advances in Economic Research
Based on scholarship in economics and related fields and analysis of current events, this paper examined international economic institutions, shifting US priorities and natural-resources diplomacy as key elements in the shift away from economic globalization. More similar to the recent retreat of global democratization than the continuing technological revolution of the last two decades, the economic aspects of globalization are under pressure from a variety of political, military and economic threats.
First, several of the world's leading economic institutions--each formerly with a role in promoting globalization--have suffered setbacks. The EU constitution was defeated by voters despite the support of the major political parties (Laurent Cohen-Tanugi, Foreign Affairs, 2005). The WTO's Doha round of trade negotiations foundered on agricultural protectionism (Joseph Stiglitz, Guardian.co.uk, 10 Aug. and 24 Oct. 2006). The World Bank's conditional lending is challenged by China's global quest for natural resources (Moises Naim, New York Times, 15 Feb. 2007). The IMF's neo-liberal "Washington Consensus" reform package has been abandoned by its originators as "stale ideological rhetoric of the 1990s" (John Williamson, Finance and Development, 2003).
Second, the US has moved toward a protectionist stance focused on the risks of globalization, especially since the attacks of September 11, 2001. The fiercest debate may be over immigration, with a shift in popular sentiment from "a nation of immigrants" to a focus on national security, economic, cultural and rule-of-law issues. …