The Philippines-Vietnam Joint Research in the South China Sea, 1996-2007

Manila Bulletin, April 27, 2008 | Go to article overview

The Philippines-Vietnam Joint Research in the South China Sea, 1996-2007


Byline: ANGEL C. ALCALA, Ph.D., National Academy of Science and Technology

PHILIPPINE President Fidel V. Ramos and Vietnam President Le Duc Anh signed a bilateral agreement to conduct a Joint Oceanographic and Marine Scientific Research Expedition in the South China Sea (JOMSRESCS) in 1994. The United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was signed in 1982, came into force in the same year. The mandate for cooperation in the South China Sea was provided for under UNCLOS Part IX on enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, as complemented by Part XIII on marine scientific research and Part XIV on the development and transfer of technology.

The UNCLOS provided the international legal framework as well as the rationale for the JOMSRE-SCS. But more importantly, the JOMSRE-SCS should be viewed as a launch pad for "the course towards cooperative management of all aspects in regard to maritime security in the South China Sea that must include, as the governance mechanism develops further, the safety and security of navigation, the prevention and control of oil pollution, and Search and Rescue...," according to Ambassador Alberto A. Encomienda, Assistant Secretary, Office of Legal Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs. We must thank the two Southeast Asian leaders, Fidel V. Ramos and Le Duc Anh, for their grand vision to secure the future of the South China Sea.

During the 11-year period 1996-2007, four JOMSRE expeditions to study the marine biology, marine geology, marine chemistry and oceanography of the South China Sea were conducted by scientists of the Philippines and Vietnam. Other participants in these expeditions were representatives of other ASEAN countries in keeping with the pertinent provisions of the UNCLOS.

The purpose of this brief paper is to report on the major findings of JOMSRE-SCS 1, III, and IV on the marine biodiversity of the South China Sea, with special reference to the Spratlys, about which several persons have commented in the press during the past few weeks. This paper deals only with the findings on marine biodiversity during the past 11 years (1996-2007). It is based on the presentations during the "Conference on the Results of the Joint Oceanographic and Marine Scientific Research Expedition in the South China Sea (JOMSRESCS)" held in Ha Long City, Vietnam on March 26-27, 2008. The findings on physical and chemical oceanography, marine geology, eco-toxicology and plankton will be reported at a later time.

The venue of the conference was a hotel in Ha Long City, Vietnam's Heritage Site and one of the famous tourist destinations of Southeast Asia. The conference was participated in by about 50 government officials and marine scientists of both countries.

The Ha Long conference highlighted the unique environmental characteristics of the South China Sea and the present condition of its biological resources, particularly those in the Spratlys. The primary marine ecosystem in the Spratlys is the coral reef represented by emergent coralline islands, shoals and atolls distributed in a wide expanse of ocean environment with varying depths, thus providing a variety of microhabitats for a high diversity of marine organisms. The primary basis for natural productivity in the study area is photosynthesis by plant plankton and zooxanthellae in corals. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Philippines-Vietnam Joint Research in the South China Sea, 1996-2007
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.