Foreign Policymaking of United States/Amerikan Dis Politikasi
Gul, Murat, Civilacademy Journal of Social Sciences
Foreign policy is a set of goals that regulates relations among countries. Elements of motivation behind a country's foreign policy may be national security, national interest, economical prosperity and even ideological goals. The arguments are higly concentrated in certain aspects of the field such as: the decision units of foreign policy, the process of foreign policymaking, and the impact of public opinion on Foreign policy. The evaluation of the field goes hand in hand with the evaluation of US Foreign Policy. In many countries, foreign policy issues are salient for public, but the US is an exception at this point and that may be because of some dynamics that are peculiar to American society and political culture.
Dis politika, ulkeler arasi iliskileri duzenleyen bir amac ve hedefler butunudur. Ulkelerin dis politikalari milli guvenlik basta olmak uzere, milli cikar, ekonomik refah ve hatta ideolojik amaclar gibi cok farkli ogelerden olusan motivasyonlara dayanabilir. Dis politika yapimi konusundaki tartismalar genelde karar birimleri, politika yapim sureci ve kamuoyunun dis politika uzerindeki etkisi gibi alanlar uzerinde yogunlasmaktadir. Dunyadaki dis politika yapimi alanindaki calismalarin Amerika Birlesik Devletleri merkezli olmasi alanin Amerikan dis politikasi yapimiyla el ele gelismesinden kaynaklanmaktadir. Ulkelerin kamuoylarinin dis politikaya etkileri siyasi kulturlerine gore degisim gostermektedir. Bu noktada diger dunya devletlerinden ayrilan Amerikan toplumu incelenmeye deger farkliliklar sunmaktadir.
1. Foreign Policy
Foreign policy is a set of goals that regulates relations among countries. Elements of motivation behind a country's foreign policy may be national security, national interest, economical prosperity and even ideological goals. Foreign policy has been important since ancient times but it gained a rapid rise in 20th century. Also Foreign Policy Analysis emerged as a intersection of international relations theory in order to enlighten the the theoretical aspects of Foreign policymaking process (Hudson and Vore, 1995).
There is a bulk of studies in this field and when we try to categorize them we see that the arguments are higly intensified on certain aspects of the field such as: the decision units of Foreign policy, the proccess of Foreign policymaking, and the sourcess of public opinion on Foreign policy (Zelikow, 1994). It is important to note that the literature is heavily US centered (Fox, 1972).
American Foreign policy is based on responses to the events which take place all around the world (Hastedt, 2003). In the past some challenges were the "revolutionary apheavals in the Third World, the economic emergence of Europe and Japan, diplomatic initiatives of China, and OPEC price increases" (Kegley and Wittkopf, 1980). Today and may be in the future the potential issues for US Foreign policy would be the further enlargement of European Union, China, Anti-Americanism in the Middle East, and Nuclear armament of new countries. So that, it is vital for US Foreign Policy to establish a secure respond system which can be avialible with a working and flexible policymaking mechanism.
1.1. Decision Units
Decision units which are responsible for Foreign policymaking show diversity according to countries and different regimes. In general these are: presidents, prime ministers, Foreign ministers, legislatures, party secretaries, bureaucracies, and military juntas. While western democracies are more pluralistic in Foreign policy making process, Authoritarian regimes are more hierarchical, and third world countries's Foreign policies are higly dependent on predominant leaders' predispositions (Hermann, 2001).
Nominally, in a country, Foreign Policymaking is under responsibility of the head of the government and the Foreign minister, but on the other hand there are some countries where legislator bodies are higly effective in Foreign Policymaking process. …