Assessments on Protection of Poets in Divan Poetry-II / Divan Siirinde Caize (Sair-Patron-Hamiiliskisi) Uzerine Degerlendirmeler-II

By Guler, Kadir; Yasar, Kerim | Civilacademy Journal of Social Sciences, Summer 2007 | Go to article overview

Assessments on Protection of Poets in Divan Poetry-II / Divan Siirinde Caize (Sair-Patron-Hamiiliskisi) Uzerine Degerlendirmeler-II


Guler, Kadir, Yasar, Kerim, Civilacademy Journal of Social Sciences


ABSTRACT

Poetry and literature was always appreciated both in central palace and in country side from the establishment to the decay period of the Ottoman Empire. The basis of this prevalant dignity was; mainly sovereignty and then viziers, governors, sanjak beys, sheikhul islams, kazaskers etc. To show their gratefulness, poets presented their works to their tutelars by various means. Furthermore they mentioned some of their requests in these works. In general, apart from poets requesting a supporter (tutelar) and hand (kidness, gift, compliments etc), there had also been poets expressing their wishes frankly. In this studyof us called "Assessments on Protection of Poets in Divan Poetry-II" is based on poets depicted wishes from their tutelars.

Key Words: Divan poetry, Eulogy-ode, caize, boss, protection-protector

OZET

Siir ve edebiyat, Osmanli Devleti'nin kurulusundan cokus yillarina kadar butun donemlerinde gerek saray merkezinde gerek tasrada kendisine bir itibar ortami bulmustur. Bu yaygin itibar ortaminin temelinde; basta hukumdar ailesi olmak uzere vezirler, valiler, sancak beyleri, seyhulislamlar, kazaskerler vs. yer almistir. Sairler de gordukleri bu himayeyi karsiliksiz birakmayarak cesitli vesilelerle hamilerine eserlerini takdim etmislerdir. Ayrica birtakim isteklerini de bu eserlerinde dile getirmislerdir. Genel anlamda koruyucu (hami) ve yardim (lutuf, ihsan, iltifat vs.) isteyen sairler oldugu gibi ozel olarak acikca ne istedigini belirten sairler de olmustur. Divan Siirinde Sair-Hami Uzerine Degerlendirmeler II adli bu calismamizda sairlerin eserlerinde hamilerine karsi dile getirdikleri istekler ele alinmistir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Divan siiri, kaside, caize, patron, hami,

Giris

Osmanli toplumunda butun guzel sanat erbabi ve ozellikle sairler daima takdir ve saygi gormustur. Ilim ve sanat erbabini el ustunde tutma merkezden tasraya kadar ayni hassasiyetle uzanmistir. Bunun neticesi olarak sairlik -ozellikle XVI. yuzyilin sonuna kadarbir meslek ve gecim kapisi olmustur. Osmanli toplumunda ilk kultur ve egitim kurumlari Iznik ve Bursa'da ortaya cikmis, bunun sonucu olarak da ilk urunler bu cografyadan elde edilmistir. 1331 yilinda Iznik'teki bir manastir, medreseye tebdil olunarak Osmanli'nin ilk medresesi acilmistir. Muderris olarak da Turk alim ve mutefekkirlerden Serefuddin Davud-i Kayseri tayin edilmistir (EFLATUN 2001:15). Osmanli devrinin ikinci medresesi de Orhan Bey'in buyuk kumandanlarindan Lala Sahin tarafindan, Iznik fethinde gorulen yararliligina mukafat olarak Taceddin-i Kurdi fetvasiyla kendisine bagislanan bircok ganimet malinin tutariyla Bursa'da kurulmustur (ADIVAR 1991:16). Ilerleyen donemlerde Anadolu'da ve Rumeli'de yapilan fetihler sonucunda Edirne, Gelibolu, Serez, Vardar Yenicesi, Uskup, Manastir, Filibe, Selanik, Belgrat, Prizren, Pristine, Kastamonu, Konya, Kutahya, Amasya, Bagdat, Erzurum ve Kayseri gibi sehirlere siyasi otoritenin gelmesiyle bu yerlesim alanlari birer kultur merkezi haline gelmistir (ISEN 1997:79).

Bir hami tarafindan korunup kollanan sairler cesitli vesilelerle hamilerine kaside, gazel, kit'a, tarih, mersiye vs. takdim etmislerdir. Sanat ve sanatcinin destekcisi olan hamiler de bu eser sahiplerini basarilari oraninda odullendirmistir. Ancak sairler, asil gelirlerini gazelleri ve belirli zamanlarda sunduklari kasidelerinden kazanmislardir. Bunun yani sira sairler, Divan veya mesnevi gibi toplu eserlerini de devlet buyugunden birine ithaf ederek karsiliginda caize almislardir. Sairler, devlet buyuklerinin yalniz sevincine degil uzuntulerine de ortak olmuslar ve bunun da karsiligini gormuslerdir. Ayrica sairler sunduklari eserlerinde hamilerinden birtakim yardimlar da istemislerdir. Bu isteklere gecmeden once sairlerin eserlerini ne zaman ve ne sekilde sunduguna ve hamilerin eserleri ne sekilde karsiladigina bakilmasi zarureti hasil olmustur.

Hamiye Yazilan Eserler 1.1. Eserlerin Yazilma Sebepleri ve Zamani

Sairlerin hamilerinden caize alabilmesi icin bircok sebep vardir. …

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Assessments on Protection of Poets in Divan Poetry-II / Divan Siirinde Caize (Sair-Patron-Hamiiliskisi) Uzerine Degerlendirmeler-II
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