Personal and Situational Factors in Drug Use as Perceived by Kibbutz Youth

By Wolf, Yuval; Olenick-Shemesh, Dorit et al. | Adolescence, Winter 1995 | Go to article overview

Personal and Situational Factors in Drug Use as Perceived by Kibbutz Youth


Wolf, Yuval, Olenick-Shemesh, Dorit, Addad, Moshe, Green, David, Walters, Joel, Adolescence


Many studies stress that the first experience with drugs usually occurs during adolescence (e.g., Chein, 1965; Green, 1985; Kandel, 1980; Van Dijk, 1980; Yavetz & Shoval, 1980). The high incidence of the use of hashish and marijuana by adolescents has led to a considerable amount of scientific literature on the subject. In this context, Jessor and Jessor (1977) claim that the phenomenon of the use of hashish and marijuana by adolescents should be examined against the background of psychological processes which typify adolescence.

The term "adolescence" is intended to represent a stage in the development of the individual. The modern connotation of this term is relatively new. In primitive societies the move from childhood to adolescence was short. In fact, there are nonindutrialized places in which the term does not exist at all (Proeferock, 1981). The term, as we know it, was first suggested in 1762 by Rousseau (1979) to represent an experience of second birth. A number of modern theoreticians (e.g., A. Freud, 1968) emphasize emotional aspects of this developmental stage and assume a psychological imbalance which ends in adolescence when intellectual defense mechanisms emerge.

Erikson (1963) postulates that adolescence is characterized by the challenge of identity formation. He does not stress the importance of any specific emotion. According to Victor, Grossman, and Eisenman (1973), this challenge for middle-class youth who have no history of pathology and who do not use drugs is associated with curiosity, a tendency toward risk-taking, and a search for new experiences.

Drug Use in Adolescence

Openess to new experiences. During specific stages of life, those who function well feel the need to expose themselves to an unsafe environment and new and exciting experiences, unrelated to the gratification of other needs (Berlyne, 1960; White, 1959). This need involves, striving for self-actualization (Coleman, Butcher, & Carson, 1980), and it is located at the top of the needs pyramid (Maslow, 1962).

Curiosity is accepted as the most common motive for embarking on drug use (Green, 1985; Mizner, Barter, & Werme, 1970; Ormian, 1975). Green's (1985) research on the use of hashish and marijuana among adolescents in Israel reports that curiosity plays a central role in their willingness to smoke hashish. Some of his subjects mentioned that they wanted to find out how it feels to be in a situation in which they lack inhibitions, and in this way get to know themselves better. Zuckerman (1971) also found that users perceived curiosity as a motive for their initiation into drug use. Hummu (1978) reported that transitory and one-time users mentioned curiosity as the primary motive for drug use.

Existential vacuum. Frankl (1955) maintains that the issue of meaning in life emerges in adolescence. He reports on findings which show that adolescents suffer from an existential vacuum more than do adults. Using this approach, Greaves (1974) studied willingness of adolescents from middle-class backgrounds to use drugs. He reported that the use of hallucinatory drugs is perceived as auto-medication for existential problems, and that this tendency combined with group pressure and availability of a drug increases the probability of smoking hashish among adolescents.

Group pressure. Most theories on the use of "soft drugs" (e.g., Becker, 1980) assume peer group influence on this behavior. The availability of the drug is a necessary but insufficient precondition for willingness to use hashish, and thus is an inseparable part of the environmental and social influence (Barr, 1984; Smart, 1980). The theories which focus on social influences in willingness to use drugs assume that the need to belong to a group is most important at the age of adolescence. This need explains the extent of conformity to the modes adopted by the peer group (e.g., Edwards & Brauburger, 1973; Floyd & South, 1972). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Personal and Situational Factors in Drug Use as Perceived by Kibbutz Youth
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.