Diffusion of Innovations Theory for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drugs
Sharma, Manoj, Kanekar, Amar, Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education
More than hundred years have passed since the diffusion of innovations theory originated. But it still remains a popular theory. As of 2002, over 5,200 applications of this theory in various fields have been published (Rogers, 2003). The hallmark of diffusion of innovations theory is that it deals with dissemination of new ideas and adoption by people in a systematic manner. Diffusion of innovations theory is an effective tool for social change. The diffusion of innovations theory deals with dissemination of an innovation is an idea, practice, or product (including services) perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. Communication channels serve as the link between those who have the know-how of the innovation and those who have not yet adopted it. The innovation-decision process (Rogers, 2003) is a five step process: (1) gaining knowledge about the innovation; (2) becoming persuaded about the innovation; (3) decision step of adopting or rejecting the innovation; (4) implementation step of putting the innovation to use; and (5) confirmation step of either reversing the decision or adopting the new innovation.
The applications of the diffusion of innovations theory in public health, health promotion, and health education began with immunization campaigns and family planning programs. Its application in alcohol, tobacco, and drugs can be seen at two levels. The first level pertains to adoption and diffusion of the habit of using alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. The second level pertains to diffusion of successful interventions pertaining to prevention and control of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. Ferrence (2001) calls these two levels "natural" or spontaneous as in the unplanned diffusion of drugs in a given population and "planned" as in the case of interventions. It is the latter level that our readers would be especially interested. Ebrahim and colleagues (2007) advocate in present times the need for faster diffusion of interventions at a global level with regard to five modifiable risk behaviors of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, overweight and obesity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity.
Simons-Morton and colleagues (1997) have advocated the use of diffusion of innovations theory in prevention of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Several interventions in the area of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs have used diffusion of innovations theory for their dissemination. One intervention is the Smart Choices, a school-based tobacco prevention program (Brink, Basen-Engquist, O'Hara-Tompkins, Parcel, Gottlieb, Lovato, 1995; Parcel et al., 1995). It was found that adoption of the program was increased in the intervention districts, and teacher attitudes and organizational factors were responsible for adoption. A unique feature of this study is that it combined social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) with diffusion of innovations theory.
Another example of application of diffusion of innovations theory is the dissemination of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's school guidelines to prevent tobacco use and addiction to state education agencies (McCormick & Tompkins, 1998). It was found that diffusion process requires planned change over time through several communication channels.
In North Carolina an experimental study was done in 22 school districts to ascertain the extent of implementation of school-based tobacco prevention curricula being disseminated based on diffusion of innovations model (McCormick, Steckler, & McLeroy, 1995). The study found that larger organizational size and teacher training were strongest predictors of curricula implementation.
Ferrence (1996) notes several applications of diffusion of innovations theory in tobacco prevention such as limiting exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, diffusion of smoking cessation programs among physicians, and diffusion of policies regarding tobacco control among public health agencies. …