Mass Administration of DEC-Medicated Salt for Filariasis Control in the Endemic Population of Karaikal, South India: Implementation and Impact Assessment

By Reddy, G. Subramanyam; Venkateswaralu, N. | Bulletin of the World Health Organization, January-February 1996 | Go to article overview

Mass Administration of DEC-Medicated Salt for Filariasis Control in the Endemic Population of Karaikal, South India: Implementation and Impact Assessment


Reddy, G. Subramanyam, Venkateswaralu, N., Bulletin of the World Health Organization


Filariasis is a major public health problem with an estimated 750 million people exposed to risk of infection and 80 million cases in the world. India accounts for about 50% of the at-risk population and about 60% of all cases (1). Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been the drug of choice and is known for its excellent microfilaricidal activity (2-4). Different methods of drug delivery--6 mg/kg/day for 12 days (5, 6) for selected cases or mass, spaced doses in different regimens (1, 2, 7-11)--have been attempted with varying degrees of impact. Dec-medicated salt has been used for control of lymphatic filariasis in India (12, 13); the largest trial was carried out in Karaikal and the immediate and delayed epidemiological impacts have been reported (14). This article describes the implementation process in Karaikal and presents the epidemiological assessment data.

Materials and methods

Karaikal lies in the Union Territory of Pondicherry,, 290 km south of Madras on the eastern coast of South India. According to the 1981 census, the population was 119 978 in an area of 160 square kilometers, including the urban municipal zone and five communes (semi-urban and rural). This area has been endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti for several decades and the National Filariasis Control Programme (NFCP) of India started a control unit in 1970. Routine control measures based on selective chemotherapy and antilarval measures have been in operation in the urban area since then.

For a period of 4 years from January 1982 a community-based trial of mass consumption of Dec-medicated salt (0.1%-O.2%) was carried out to evaluate its efficacy and impact on epidemiological and transmission parameters. This trial was implemented jointly by the NFCP and the Directorate of Health and Family Welfare, government of Pondicherry Union Territory.

Data collection

The following epidemiological and entomological data were collected:

-- human infection prevalence (microfilaria rate in

--vector infection prevalence (vector infection and infectivity rates in

Data on the pre-intervention epidemiological parameters were obtained from the local filariasis control unit of the NFCP for the 10-year period, 1972-81. These data had been collected using standard guidelines by the NFCP (15). In January 1982, surveys were carried out to collect the immediate pre-intervention data on human and vector infection status. Data during the intervention (1982-86) and in the post-intervention period (1986-93) on the same parameters were collected by the local NFCP unit.

Details of the salt-manufacturing units within the study area and of outside sources to meet the local requirements, along with the entry routes, and the mechanisms of distribution of salt from the manufacturing sites to the consumers were studied. Based on these data, a plan was drawn up for the production, quality control and distribution of Dec-medicated salt to the target population.

Role of local authorities and the community

After the programme's inauguration by the then Minister for Health and Family Welfare of Pondicherry in January 1982, a series of meetings were held in the communes and municipal zones with the local health and administrative authorities, field health staff, local political office-bearers, opinion leaders, village Panchayat members and social workers to explain the salient features of the medicated-salt programme and its benefits. They were told that the Dec-medicated salt was non-toxic with no harmful effects on prepared foods and shown how to identify the marks indicating Dec-medicated salt. The community was motivated through door-to-door visits and group discussions to explain the programme. Slides (35mm) describing the programme and requesting public cooperation were projected in local cinemas, which are popular in South India. Publicity was given through public address systems on mobile vehicles and using specially designed banners. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Mass Administration of DEC-Medicated Salt for Filariasis Control in the Endemic Population of Karaikal, South India: Implementation and Impact Assessment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.