Economic, Environmental, Social and Cultural Issues in Mineral and Energy Development of Vietnam

By Clark, Allen L. | Journal of Business Administration, Annual 1994 | Go to article overview

Economic, Environmental, Social and Cultural Issues in Mineral and Energy Development of Vietnam


Clark, Allen L., Journal of Business Administration


Introduction

Any discussion of the economic, environmental, social and cultural impacts of mineral and energy development within Vietnam [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED! must recognize the interaction of the nation's population, its development objectives and the impacts of the exploitation of its minerals and energy. It is an ironic dichotomy that Vietnam's population is both its greatest asset and greatest threat to the responsible development of its natural resources. With an estimated population of 65 million (1990) there is a mean density of approximately 200 individuals per square kilometer, one of the highest densities of any agricultural nation in the world. Moreover, the population is estimated to exceed 80 million by the year 2000, further straining the environment, resource base, and other economic capacity of the nation as continuing widespread impoverishment leads to the overexploitation and environmentally unsound development of mineral and energy resources. Vietnam's development policy emphasizes the continued and increasing use of natural resources, both domestically and for export (in particular minerals and energy, but agricultural resources, forests and water as well), without the requisite environmental safeguards in place

The responsible development of Vietnam's mineral and energy resources will require not only the establishment and implementation of environmental safeguards for future developments, but it must also deal with the existing problems of present and past mineral and energy development. It is the purpose of this brief summary to identify some of the existing and future mineral and energy developments that will impact or are already impacting Vietnam's economy, environment and social-cultural attributes.

In the following discussion a rather bleak but unfortunately accurate picture of the impacts of mineral and energy development is presented. It is intended that this discussion highlight the scope and diversity of existing impacts both as a basis for evaluating current needs but, more importantly, to point to the problems that will arise, plus many more, in future developments. These problems will be compounded if present efforts are not increased and expanded substantially in terms of standards, legislation and enforcement of remedial, mitigative and preventive measures to reduce economic, environmental, social and cultural impacts.

Existing Impacts of Mineral and Energy Development

Past and present mining activities within Vietnam have been and continue to be undertaken, in most areas, with major impacts on the environment. In the following, some of the major problems are highlighted, with appropriate examples, which are indicative of the industry as a whole and must be considered in future development.

Placer/gemstone mining. Within the last decade, and particularly within the last 5 years, Vietnam has experienced a dramatic increase in placer gold and gemstone mining within the country: activities which now include at least 100,000 individuals and their families. Among the major areas of placer gold mining are the areas of Pac Lang, Ban Lim, Napai, Lang Vai, Luong Thoung and the Long Dai, Hinh, Lo and Gam River areas and their tributaries. Among the most serious impacts are the following:

(1) high levels of stream pollution and siltation;

(2) local and regional distribution of mercury and arsenic pollution;

(3) large-scale deforestation and soil stripping;

(4) loss of farm land (both temporary and long term); and

(5) large-scale tailings and waste dumps. Although these represent massive impacts on the physical environment, there are other equally damaging impacts, including:

(6) the loss of life from unsafe mining (over 100 individuals annually); and

(7) displacement of local peoples and conflicts between local and non-local Vietnames miners.

Perhaps for the long term the greatest impact is that of the reappearance and increasing incidence of malaria associated with the placer mining areas; these areas are ideal breeding grounds for disease-carrying insects. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Economic, Environmental, Social and Cultural Issues in Mineral and Energy Development of Vietnam
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.