Mangrove and Coastal Zone Management Strategy: A Case Study of Irian Jaya, Indonesia

By Ruitenbeek, H. Jack; Cartier, Cynthia M. | Journal of Business Administration, Annual 1994 | Go to article overview

Mangrove and Coastal Zone Management Strategy: A Case Study of Irian Jaya, Indonesia


Ruitenbeek, H. Jack, Cartier, Cynthia M., Journal of Business Administration


Introduction

The coastal zone management (CZM) strategies investigated here involve a mangrove area in Eastern Indonesia. The investigation is based upon a broad understanding of the ecological economics of the resource. Accordingly, the analysis includes three important components: (a) ecological impacts, (b) economic impacts - market and non-market, and (c) distributional impacts of both (a) and (b). Knowledge of these impacts rests on the identification of key uses and functions of the resource, and the linkages between them.

Using ecological economics in the development or evaluation of a management strategy moves beyond the traditional approach to resource management because it requires that all key components of the resource be identified. In the case of mangroves, conventional management approaches are often based on a single marketable use of the mangrove such as forestry - timber, charcoal, woodchips, etc. However, the mangrove supports other productive uses such as fisheries and traditional activities; and it performs important functions such as preventing coastal zone erosion or maintaining biodiversity. Not all of its uses or functions flow through formal markets and have some price attached to them. Even where some market transactions occur, the market prices do not necessarily reflect the value of the particular good or service being provided by the mangrove. Nevertheless, ecological economics requires that the multiple components - the uses and functions - of the mangrove be included in the analysis.

Once the key components of the mangrove are identified, in order to understand the implications of a particular CZM strategy, it is necessary to understand the linkages between the components. From the linkages, the potential impacts - ecological, economic, and distributional - of a particular management strategy can be known, and judged against those of alternative strategies.

Indonesia's mangrove resources are significant both in their geographic extent and in their importance to national economic production. Of 144 million hectares of forest in Indonesia, wetland forests comprise almost 30 million hectares, and mangroves account for over 4 million hectares. These mangrove areas are under intense pressure from competing resource uses. Their exploitation for charcoal, wood, fish ponds, or similar productive uses is often done on the grounds of narrow economic evaluations that focus on only a single use of the mangrove. However, because mangroves have multiple components, the economic value of some single component of the resource is often very significant, although not always obvious, and the ecological linkages between different components are also very significant, although fraught with uncertainty. These two factors alone imply that improper management of one component, such as forestry, can result in significant economic losses elsewhere, such as offshore fisheries.

Both the economic and ecological importance of mangroves is becoming well recognized within Indonesia. A National Mangrove Committee exists which has the function of identifying critical mangrove areas. Indonesian Forestry Departments, which in most cases have authority over mangrove exploitation, are seeking technical solutions for sustainable mangrove use. Most recently, the Ministry of State for Population and Environment (KLH) has started to assess the role of mangrove management in a broader program of Marine and Coastal Environmental Management. This effort is a component of the Environmental Management Development in Indonesia (EMDI) Project, which is funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and is jointly designed and implemented by KLH and Dalhousie University.

This paper is based on a study completed in 1991 for the EMDI project. The objective of the study was to contribute to a mangrove management framework which is sufficiently flexible to be applied to different mangrove areas in Indonesia. …

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