Relationship between Job Satisfaction & Job Stress Amongst Teachers & Managers
Sen, Kakoli, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations
This study examines the relationship between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction amongst teachers and managers. Data was collected from 31 teachers and 34 managers in the NCR region. Results show no significant differences in Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of teachers and managers. However teachers experience low job Satisfaction and they face Job Stress while in case of managers the two do not seem to associate.
The term "Job Satisfaction" was first described by Hoppock (1935) who observed that Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person to say "I am satisfied with my job". While there have many debates on the concept of Job Satisfaction, in most studies it is described as how people feel about their jobs and its different aspects. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector 1997). However a more direct description is provided by Saiyadain (2007) who defines Job Satisfaction as the end state of feeling, the feeling that is experienced after a task is accomplished. This feeling could be negative or positive depending on the outcome of the task undertaken.
Stress is derived from the Latin word "Stringere" which means to draw tight. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important (Cooper et. al. 2002). Stress has been a focus of study in medical science where it has been defined as a perturbation of the body's homeostasis. This demand on mind-body occurs when it tries to cope with incessant changes in life. In the organizational context, stress has been found to be experienced by employees during job insecurity, performance expectations, technology changes, and personal and family problems. A more generalized description is provided by Caplan et. al. (1975) who suggest that stress is any characteristic of the job environment. There have been many studies on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction and these studies generally indicate that job stress and satisfaction are inversely related (Sullivan & Bhagat 1992). Stress is believed to cause depression, irritation, anxiety, fatigue and thus lower self esteem and reduce job satisfaction. (Manivannan et. al. 2007). Job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction is often included in stress research as a consequence of stress and a negative relationship between stress and job satisfaction is frequently reported.
Stress & Job Satisfaction
The relationship between stress and job satisfaction has been studied in a variety of professions. A study by Chung and Fong (1990) on general medical practitioners in Hongkong found that though the medical practitioners' job is considered as hard work, majority of the practitioners were generally satisfied with their work. In another study on military pilots, Ahmadi and Alireza (2006) found that during peace times in Iran, 13.5 % pilots out of 89 military pilots studied experienced high stress. Yet in another study on role stress of scientists and defence personnel in the Antarctic expedition by Roy and Deb (1999), role stress was found to be correlated with job related tension and alienation. In the expedition, both scientists and defence personnel had to play roles that were not in conformity with their occupation. The observation suggested that both the groups would perceive some difficulty in integrating the different roles assigned to them while they were in Antarctica.
There have been other studies on different professionals on their experiences of job satisfaction and role stress. For example Soleiman et.al. (2007) studied organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran and found that role stress was experienced comparatively in higher degree among faculty members. …