Standards and Linkages

By Bray, Marilyn | JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, September 1996 | Go to article overview

Standards and Linkages


Bray, Marilyn, JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance


Thanks to the diligence of our colleagues, all disciplines within the Alliance have national standards. Now that we have this information, there are many questions about how to use these guidelines to develop programs that lead to an improved lifestyle. The JOPERD editorial board is encouraging readers to submit manuscripts, feature proposals, and viewpoints which focus on applying the content and skills reflected in these national standards to real-life behaviors. In an effort to stimulate thinking along these lines, I pose several questions.

Too often life creates barriers which stand in the way of doing what we know is necessary. What is it - beyond learning physical skills, movement concepts, motor learning, exercise science, and so forth - that is essential to actually practicing what is learned? The idea of physical activity as play, which may be enjoyed only when the work (not traditionally health-related) is done, must change. How can we empower students to apply concepts of well-being to their own lives and leisure behaviors after the end of their instructional experiences in physical activity?

Life is a complex entanglement of work, family, leisure, responsibilities, survival, time, skills, resources, philosophy, values, and childhood habits. Assessment is a way to measure life role skills. We know that assessment practices are changing, and these new practices are different from what most of us have been using in our physical education programs. How do we develop assessment methods that are substantive? How does assessment drive instruction? How do we design instruction so that it includes the application of life role skills?

An example of how assessment initiatives are influencing programs can be seen in Chesterfield County (Virginia) Public Schools. A group of 10th-grade teachers are implementing a county personal fitness course developed by the school system. In the course, students are learning to design, implement, evaluate, and revise personal fitness programs.

Teachers have done well in teaching the content. However, after their first year of teaching the course, they determined that not enough students were demonstrating responsibility for their own learning. Questions arose about student empowerment. Teachers asked, "What has to happen for student empowerment to be embedded in the instructional design? How do we as teachers find out how to teach differently so that students learn to be responsible for their own learning?"

As teachers struggled with these questions, one strategy they used was to develop rubrics for assessment. The process of describing what students should know and be able to do at the end of the learning experiences helped them more clearly visualize what learning would look like and how it might compare with a life environment. Because of these rubrics, teachers and students no longer have vague ideas of expectations. The rubrics provided a more concrete view of what to do. The chart below shows some shifts in the teachers' thinking.

Moving from                                           Moving
towards

  * Teacher always directing                  Students
self-managing

  * Mostly whole group teaching            Mostly collaboration
with

individuals

  * Students implementing fitness      Students implementing
fitness
plan with little understanding of             plan and
demonstrating
concepts and principles                understanding of concepts
and

principles

  * Primary teacher assessment             Primarily
self-assessment

As we help students assume more responsibility for their learning, teachers are constantly challenged to deal with empowerment issues. How do students learn to take personal responsibility for their skill or fitness development? How does student responsibility influence the design of lessons? What impact do teaching styles have on students' ability to take responsibility for their lifelong learning? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Standards and Linkages
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.