The School and Students in Society

By Ediger, Marlow | Journal of Instructional Psychology, September 2008 | Go to article overview

The School and Students in Society


Ediger, Marlow, Journal of Instructional Psychology


Students come from different socioeconomic levels in society. Thus, they do not come to school with equivalent background experiences. Students from upper and middle class socio economic communities do better in test results as compared to those who come from poverty homes. By viewing mandated test results, it is quite obvious that money assists in securing the good things in life such as tours of other nations/states as well as reading materials at home, and the possibilities of attending prestigious private schools and universities. Parents of higher income levels possess a higher level of educational attainment and do more reading at home which provides a good model for children. Better clothes for children, better homes, and the possibilities of healthful nutrition are further advantages of having adequate incomes. After school programs of lessons in different fields in music and dance further accentuates benefits of being in the upper income levels.

**********

National and State Objectives for Student Attainment

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal law of 2002 emphasizes cognitive objectives, largely, for all students to attain on a specific grade level (grades three through eight and a high school exit test). For any grade level, students take the same test. This is generally true regardless of ability levels or cultural factors such as being a special needs student, an English Language Learner (ELL), or a student from a minority group. All take the same standardized grade level tests with the same time limits for test taking. Any separate category such as special needs children (mentally retarded students, for example) need to show adequate yearly progress or the entire school is deemed as "failing." It's a one size 'fits all' set of beliefs involved in testing (Ediger and Rao, 2007a).

More needs to be said about the home and environmental conditions which students experience from birth to and including the public school years. Those students who grow up in poverty have several strikes against them. They have not experienced models conducive to doing well in school. The late A. H. Maslow (1954) emphasized five general sequential needs of individuals in order to do well in life. The lowest level is for individuals to have adequate nutrition, sleep and rest, as well as have appropriate clothing.

The second level is for individuals to have safety needs met. Freedom from danger and abuse is important. The third level stresses having belonging needs met. All like to possess feelings of belonging. Being isolated and shunned does not make for happiness. Next, esteem needs must be met. Each person desires to be recognized for achievements made and not be bullied. For improved performance in school, all may have esteem needs met with praise and other forms of rewards for improved performance. Then too, individuals like to become the kind of person desired, as a final objective. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs provides a framework for goals that most individuals crave and wish. Too many students experience tremendous obstacles to success in school and in life generally. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) advocates seemingly believe that all students on a specific grade level can experience success regardless of the home and societal environment.

Self-Directed Achievement

Value added approaches in testing would better reveal an individual student's progress as compared to predetermined standards as advocated by NCLB. In valued added approaches, each student would be compared with his/her previous test score to ascertain achievement. Achievement for any student is desired rather than achievement of predetermined standards. The latter stresses a student setting out to achieve what a remote set of test makers believe that learners should achieve. In contrast, value added procedures emphasize a student's achievement over previous test results. Is growth in evidence? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The School and Students in Society
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.