Traumatic Brain Injury - an Intellectual's Need for Cognitive Rehabilitation

By Czubaj, Camilia Anne | Education, Fall 1996 | Go to article overview

Traumatic Brain Injury - an Intellectual's Need for Cognitive Rehabilitation


Czubaj, Camilia Anne, Education


Traumatic brain injuries can happen at anytime, to anyone. A traumatic brian injury (TBI) occurs when the brain has undergone sudden injury. Traumatic brain injuries may occur when incidents such as strokes, gunshot wounds, physical assaults, sports, car accidents, falls, bicycle and motorcycle accidents, as well as when pedestrians are hit by vehicles cause damage to an individual's brain. Doctors, teachers, cognitive therapists, and health care professionals don't always recognize or properly diagnose the problems that arise for a traumatic brain injured individual: moreover, the intellectual who has suffered a traumatic brain injury does not receive the proper cognitive retraining. The professionals think nothing is wrong with the individual because s/he functions at such a high level. Dr. Thomas Kay, in his article, "What You Should Know About 'The Unseen Injury: Minor Head Trauma'", stated the nerve cell damage can be widespread and microscopic, not appearing on diagnostic radiographic imageries or on neurological testings. He also stated a person's intelligence could still be measured as average or above average, yet their cognitive abilities are not as they once were.

This possible inability to recognize the intellectual TBI's cognitive difficulties since the injury is frustrating to the intellectual TBI, because they know something is a miss cognitively. Dr. Kay advises patients, "not to fall victim to being told you are malingering or imagining your symptoms." Mary Ellen Jennison, in her report, "Project Able: Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness", supports the need for curriculum and programs geared to college students and the higher functioning TBI individuals. She outlined Project Able's program in which their curriculum and services assist the TBIs to attend/succeed in collegiate endeavors and re-enter the work force. Jennison stated that educators have little knowledge about head injuries. Kay discussed, in his paper, "Selection and Outcome Criteria for Community-Based Employment: Perspectives, Methodological Problems and Options", how TBI rehabilitators should not pick up whatever tool is closest at hand" in the rehabilitation of the TBI, but should custom tailor the cognitive retraining to the individual. Without this custom tailoredness, the intellectual TBI emerges from cognitive retraining with little/no assistance for their cognitive deficits.

Contusions to the head, skull fractures, or skull lacerations are not necessary components for a person to have undergone a TBI. A car accident in which a person has suffered a whiplash, a sudden jerk to the head, can results in a TBI without the person's head ever hitting anything. The brain can rotate violently or bounce off the skull's inner walls, reacting similarly as when a bowl full of coagulated gelatin is shaken, causing stretching or snapping of microscopic fibers, axons, which send messages to nerve cells, neurons, within the brain. This disturbance to the mental functioning within the brain is called a concussion, even if the disturbance is brief. The person need not loose consciousness to suffer a concussion. During the concussion the axons can stretch, twist, bend, or snap. Some axons may swell or even disintegrate. The axons transmit brain messages. The myelin sheath surrounding and insulating the axons can also be damaged or destroyed in the same fashion as the axons. Concussions are now classified according to symptoms:

grade 1 concussion - "seeing stars", the person remains conscious, only momentary confusion, headaches, dizziness, some short-term memory loss, head clears quickly, no medical intervention.

grade 2 concussion - amnesia, nausea, ringing in the ears

grade 3 concussion - unconsciousness

Rest allows the brain to attempt to heal itself from a concussion. There are more neurons within the brain that were not previously used. Rest permits the brain to replace or repair the nerve connections. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Traumatic Brain Injury - an Intellectual's Need for Cognitive Rehabilitation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.