Perceptions of Gender Differences in the Expression of Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

By Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Merves, Esther et al. | Education & Treatment of Children, November 2008 | Go to article overview

Perceptions of Gender Differences in the Expression of Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities


Rice, Elisabeth Hess, Merves, Esther, Srsic, Amy, Education & Treatment of Children


Abstract

Few resources identify specific needs and interventions for girls with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). This qualitative analysis asks fifteen teacher and counselor professionals about their perceptions of girls with EBD through semi-structured interviews. Six emergent themes from the analysis are discussed. The results demonstrate that further research is needed in the areas of understanding the hidden nature of girls' issues, girls' minority status in special education, girls' physical behaviors, and girls' unique peer issues. Additionally, issues of the language used to describe girls with EBD and professionals' perceptions of the difficulty of working with troubled girls are considered.

**********

In working with teachers and administrators in the field of emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD), the comment is often heard, "I really think girls are somehow more difficult to work with than boys." While not universal, this sentiment is echoed in the writings of Baines and Alder (1999), Chesney-Lind and Okamoto (2000), and internationally in the field of juvenile justice (see Artz, 2005 for a discussion). How does this perception influence teachers' understanding of the needs of girls with EBD? The present exploratory qualitative study of professionals' perceptions of working with girls with EBD provides an in-depth portrait from a 15-person sample. Through examining the perceptions of a small group of teachers and counselors, this study begins to identify teacher education issues and provides suggestions for future interventions studies for girls with EBD.

Unique Needs of Girls

Many researchers have discussed the unique needs of girls in our society. The American Association of University Women (AAUW) (1992, 1998) has published reports discussing the inherent bias in schools against girls. Published literature from the field of education highlights the learning differences between girls and boys (Gurian & Ballew, 2003) as well as the differing relationships teachers have with each gender (Sadker & Sadker, 1994). In the field of psychology, researchers have investigated: (1) girls' unique developmental needs especially during adolescence (Gilligan, 1993; Orenstein, 1994); (2) social/relational aggression (Crick & Zahn-Waxler; Underwood, 2003); and (3) unique manifestations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Mood Disorders (see Bell, Foster, & Mash, 2005 for a discussion). In the field of juvenile justice, researchers cite the need for gender responsive programming as the number of females in the corrections systems grows (Bloom, Owen, Deschenes, & Rosenbaum, 2002). In popular literature, girls in groups are being analyzed for the undetected aggression of "mean" or "queen" girls (Simmons, 2002). Few resources, however, whether conceptual or research based, deal directly with girls and behavior in education or girls identified as having an emotional or behavioral disability.

Girls with EBD

Research pertaining to special education programming for girls with EBD is considerably rare (Cullinan, Osborne, & Epstein, 2004; Kann & Hanna, 2000; Vardill & Calvert, 2000). Girls with emotional disturbance make up 15% to 25% of all identified children and adolescents with disabilities (Cullinan et al., 2004). Though national data compiled in the Annual Report to Congress on special education is not classified by gender, state data reveals large variation in the numbers of girls identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (Oswald, 2005). Interestingly, the rate of identification for girls begins to increase during adolescence and reflects that of boys during adolescence (Callahan, 1994; Oswald, Best, Coutinho, & Nagle, 2003).

A myriad of factors contribute to the underidentification of girls for EBD services. Kann and Hanna (2000) posit that the existing processes and tools used in schools to identify girls with EBD may not accurately detect girls' internalizing expressions of disabilities. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Perceptions of Gender Differences in the Expression of Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.