Cognitive Rehabilitation for Reversible and Progressive Brain Injury

By Samuel, Ravi | Indian Journal of Psychiatry, October-December 2008 | Go to article overview

Cognitive Rehabilitation for Reversible and Progressive Brain Injury


Samuel, Ravi, Indian Journal of Psychiatry


Byline: Ravi. Samuel

Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is a specialized treatment procedure to develop the cognition affected by internal or external injury to the brain. The process of cognitive rehabilitation involves assessment of cognitive functions, goal setting, and applying appropriate cognitive exercises to improve the cognitive function. There are two types of CR: Restorative rehabilitation and Compensatory rehabilitation. The CR therapist will make a comprehensive assessment of the impairment and design appropriate cognitive exercises. Studies on the efficacy of CR for brain damage have shown two extremes; one opinion was CR has a positive effect on the patients cognitive functioning and the other opinion was that CR has no effect on the cognitive functioning. This case study examines the dynamics and relevance of CR in reversible and progressive brain injury. It was observed that in reversible condition CR improves cognition and thereby functional ability. In progressive conditions like Alzheimer's disease (AD), CR improves the cognition marginally and thereby improves functional ability and also reduces Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD).

Introduction

Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is a specialized treatment procedure to develop the cognition affected by internal or external injury to the brain. This is based on the theory proposed by Luria that the recovery of function can occur through new learned connections established through cognitive retraining exercises.[sup] [1] The process of cognitive rehabilitation involves assessment of cognitive functions, goal setting, and applying appropriate cognitive exercise to improve the cognitive function.[sup] [2]

There are two types of CR: Restorative rehabilitation and Compensatory rehabilitation.[sup] [3] Restorative rehabilitation is to enable the person to develop the lost function through specialized computerized and manual cognitive exercises. Compensatory rehabilitation helps the patient to develop use of aids and tools to overcome the impairment. For example, people with poor memory can have a small slip to write down what they need to remember.

The brain needs specific exercises to enable it to regain the lost function after injury; in case of internal event like stroke or external accident like head Injury. CR is normally done after the patient medically stabilizes.[sup] [3] CR is also beneficial for people who have developed their brain functioning in a faulty manner due to poor supervision in learning during childhood.

CR therapist will make a comprehensive assessment of the impairment and select appropriate cognitive exercises. For example if a person suffers from severe memory difficulties, the exercises will start with simple exercises like learning five randomly selected words and then recalling as many times during the day. And with the development of the brain; the difficulty and complexity of the exercises will be increased like asking the patient to learn three new words. Initially CR is done through manual exercises and computerized programme with assistance of the therapist. The therapist will enable the patient to perform exercises in areas in which they have difficulty. After the patient develops confidence over their performance in doing the exercises, they will be encouraged to do cognitive exercises at home.

Studies on the efficacy of CR for brain injury have shown two extremes; one opinion was CR has a positive effect on the patients cognitive functioning[sup] [4],[5] and the other opinion was that CR has no effect on the Cognitive Functioning.[sup] [6],[7] This case study examines the dynamics and relevance of CR in reversible and progressive brain injury.

Case 1 Mr. S aged 39 years, working as manager of a multi national company was referred by a Psychiatrist for CR. He was a heavy smoker and also had the habit of drinking alcohol occasionally. One and half years ago, he had severe myocardial infarction and consequent hypoxia, resulting in severe brain injury, leading to severe cognitive impairment. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Cognitive Rehabilitation for Reversible and Progressive Brain Injury
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.