Substance Abuse: Nature or Nurture?

Nutrition Health Review, Fall 2006 | Go to article overview

Substance Abuse: Nature or Nurture?


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Illicit psychoactive substance use, abuse, and dependence are major public health problems. Several genetic risk factors contribute to dependence on both lawfully prescribed medications and illicit psychoactive substances. However, the interrelationship of these risk factors is unclear. Understanding the differences in risk is essential to aiding clinicians and researchers in developing effective approaches to prevention and treatment of these disorders.

Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D., Director of the Psychiatric Genetics Research Program at Virginia Commonwealth University Medical School in Richmond, and his team of researchers sought to clarify the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors by scrutinizing the symptoms of dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Participants in the study consisted of nearly 5,000 members of male-male and female-female pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders.

Dr. Kendler indicated that patterns of genetic and environmental risk factors for psychoactive substance dependence were similar in men and women. Genetic risk for dependence on common psychoactive substances cannot be explained by a single factor. Instead, two genetic factors are needed--one predisposing to illicit drug dependence and the other primarily to licit drug dependence. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Upgrade your membership to receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad‑free environment

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Upgrade your membership to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Substance Abuse: Nature or Nurture?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved in your active project from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Upgrade your membership to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.