The Role of Parental Involvement in Youth Sport Participation and Performance

By Hoyle, Rick H.; Leff, Stephen S. | Adolescence, Spring 1997 | Go to article overview

The Role of Parental Involvement in Youth Sport Participation and Performance


Hoyle, Rick H., Leff, Stephen S., Adolescence


Parents often assume the role of motivator, facilitator, even coach in the life of the young athlete. In these roles parents can provide financial, emotional, and physical support. They can also apply pressure to the young athlete in the interest of excellence and success. The present research examined parental support and parental pressure and their role in the sport experience of young tournament tennis players. Tennis players were chosen because their evaluation of outcomes is based on individual performance. As such, we would not expect to see among tennis players the biased attributions likely to accompany team members' evaluation of their own contribution to group performance outcomes. Moreover, tennis is a sport in which there is ample opportunity for parents to involve themselves in the young athlete's sport experience.

Research indicates that among young athletes parental support is associated with greater enjoyment of sport (Left & Hoyle, 1995; Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1986), more positive appraisal of performance outcomes (Smith, Zingale, & Coleman, 1978), and more positive appraisals of self-worth (Coopersmith, 1967; Felker, 1968; Left & Hoyle, 1955). Parental pressure, on the other hand, is associated with discontent with sport participation (Smith, 1986), stress associated with evaluation of performance outcomes (McElroy, 1982; Ogilvie, 1979; Scanlan & Passer, 1979), and negative or uncertain appraisals of self-worth (Smith et al., 1978). Building on these findings, the association of young tournament tennis players' perceptions of parental support and parental pressure with their enjoyment of tennis, objective and subjective performance ratings, and self-esteem were examined.

Parental support was defined as behaviors by parents perceived by their children as facilitating athletic participation and performance (Leff & Hoyle, 1995). Two aspects of this definition merit elaboration. First, it is most likely that children's perception of their parents' support contributes to the emotional and athletic adjustment of the child. Avid parental support that is not apparent to the child is not likely to be as effective as minimal parental support that is acknowledged and appreciated by the child. Second, parental support affects children's participation and their performance in sport (Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1986). In this context, participation means their continued enjoyment of and loyalty to the sport; performance means the level of accomplishment they are able to attain.

Parental pressure was defined as behavior perceived by their children as indicating expectations of unlikely, even unattainable heights of accomplishment (Leff & Hoyle, 1995). As with parental support, the emphasis is on the perception of the child, not the objective behavior of the parents. Parental pressure has been operationalized as the discrepancy between parents' and the young athlete's expectations (McElroy & Kirkendall, 1981; Smith et al., 1978).

One objective of this research was to determine the extent to which perceived parental involvement is associated with young athletes' enjoyment of their sport participation. Focus on players' enjoyment of tennis reflects a growing concern that youth sports has come to be a burden rather than a source of positive growth and development for young athletes (Feltz, 1986). This concern has arisen despite recent evidence that the desire for enjoyment is the number one reason young athletes cite for their participation in sports (Gould & Horn, 1984). Martens and Seefeldt (1979) included the "Right to have fun in sports" in their "Bill of Rights for Young Athletes." It was hypothesized here that perceived parental support would be positively associated with players' self-reported enjoyment of tennis, whereas perceived parental pressure would be negatively associated.

A second objective was to determine the extent to which parental involvement is associated with young athletes' performance and their perception of their performance. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Role of Parental Involvement in Youth Sport Participation and Performance
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.