Dayton Peace Agreement

Presidents & Prime Ministers, January-February 1996 | Go to article overview

Dayton Peace Agreement


The following is a summary of the Dayton Peace Agreement on Bosnia-Hercegovina by US Department of State, November 20, 1995.

The Dayton Proximity Talks culminated in the initialing of a General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Hercegovina. It was initialed by the Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The Agreement was witnessed by representatives of the Contact Group nations--the United States, Britain, France, Germany, and Russia--and the European Union Special Negotiator. The Dayton Peace Agreement and its Annexes are summarized below.

General Framework Agreement

* Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia agree to fully respect the sovereign equality of one another and to settle disputes by peaceful means.

* The FRY and Bosnia and Hercegovina recognize each other, and agree to discuss further aspects of their mutual recognition.

* The parties agree to fully respect and promote fulfillment of the commitments made in the various Annexes, and they obligate themselves to respect human rights and the rights of refugees and displaced persons.

* The parties agree to cooperate fully with all entities, including those authorized by the United Nations Security Council, in implementing the peace settlement and investigating and prosecuting war crimes and other violations of international humanitarian law.

Annex 1-A: Military Aspects

* The cease-fire that began with the agreement of October 5, 1995 will continue.

* Foreign combatant forces currently in Bosnia are to be withdrawn within 30 days.

* The parties must complete withdrawal of forces behind a zone of separation of approximately 4 km within an agreed period. Special provisions relate to Sarajevo and Gorazde.

* As a confidence-building measure, the parties agree to withdraw heavy weapons and forces to cantonment/barracks areas within an agreed period and to demobilize forces which cannot be accommodated in those areas.

* The agreement invites into Bosnia and Hercegovina a multinational military Implementation Force, the IFOR, under the command of NATO, with a grant of authority from the UN.

* The IFOR will have the right to monitor and help ensure compliance with the agreement on military aspects and fulfill certain supporting tasks. The IFOR will have the right to carry out its mission vigorously, including with the use of force as necessary. It will have unimpeded freedom of movement, and control over airspace.

* A Joint Military Commission is established, to be chaired by the IFOR Commander. Persons under indictment by the International War Crimes Tribunal cannot participate.

* Information on mines, military personnel, weaponry and other items must be provided to the Joint Military Commission within agreed periods.

* All combatants and civilians must be released and transferred without delay in accordance with a plan to be developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross.

Annex 1-B: Regional Stabilization

* The Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina, the Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republic must begin negotiations within 7 days, under Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) auspices, with the objective of agreeing on confidence-building measures within 45 days. These could include, for example, restrictions on military deployments and exercises, notification of military activities and exchange of data.

* These three parties, as well as Croatia and the Federal Republic Yugoslavia, agree not to import arms for 90 days and not to import any heavy weapons, heavy weapons ammunition, mines, military aircraft, and helicopters for 180 days or until an arms control agreement takes effect.

* All five parties must begin negotiations within 30 days, under OSCE auspices, to agree on numerical limits on holdings of tanks, artillery, armored combat vehicles, combat aircraft and attack helicopters. …

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