Psychometric Properties of the Spanish-Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children Who Are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence

By Molina, Carmen Soto; Gomez, Jose Rodriguez et al. | Adolescence, Spring 2009 | Go to article overview

Psychometric Properties of the Spanish-Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children Who Are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence


Molina, Carmen Soto, Gomez, Jose Rodriguez, Pastrana, Maria C. Velez, Adolescence


It is important to be aware of the problems of domestic violence and depression in the Puerto Rican population. Depression in teenagers has been associated with conflictive and dysfunctional families (Arzola-Colon, Gonzalez-Villanova, and Rosello, 2000). Fendrich, Warner, and Weissman (1990) pointed out that children from dysfunctional families are at greater risk of developing psychopathological disorders than children from stable families.

Likewise, it has been found that when stressors in the family increase, the functioning of the children and teenagers deteriorates (Forehand, Wierson, McCombs, Armistead, Kempton, & Neighbors, as cited in Saez and Rosello, 2001).

Affective disorders in children and teenagers represent a serious mental health problem. Many researchers believe that mood disorders in children and teenagers present a low prevalence within the group of psychiatric illnesses (Rosello, 1993). Some of the reasons for this might be the following: children do not always express their feelings, the symptoms of mood disorders are different in children and in adults, mood disorders may be accompanied with other psychiatric disorders which might mask symptoms of depression and, lastly, many psychiatrists tend to think that depression and other mood disorders are adult illnesses (Rosello, 1993).

Depression is a disorder that affects people of all ages, including infants, boys, girls, teenagers and mainly adults (Rosello & Martinez, 1997). Furthermore, it is also one of the most frequent reasons for which psychological services are sought in Puerto Rican society (Bernal, Rosello, & Martinez, 1992; Rodriguez & Alsina, 1994).

There are important reasons to study and treat juvenile depression. First, there has been an increase in the incidence of depression and suicide in this population. Second, depression interferes with developmental tasks, thereby causing additional problems. Third, depression, if left untreated, tends to be recurrent. Finally, depression is a condition that causes great suffering to those who go through it and to their families (Rosello & Martinez, 1997).

The family is the institution which most influences human socialization. It is the first school of emotional and cognitive learning for a child and where the child experiences the first models of behavior (Nevarez, as cited in Ortiz, 2001). However, families today may well be either the network of economic and emotional sustenance or the most violent context for its members (Silvia, as cited in Ortiz, 2001).

The Puerto Rican Domestic Violence Prevention and Intervention Act of 1989, also known as Public Law #54, defines domestic violence as "a constant pattern of using physical force or psychological violence, intimidation or persecution against a person by that person's partner, ex-partner, the person with whom he or she lives or has lived, with whom he or she has or has had a consensual relationship or a person with whom he or she has had a child, to cause him or her bodily harm, or to harm his or her property or someone else in order to cause him or her severe emotional damage." This act also states, in its Statement of Purpose, that domestic violence is considered an antisocial behavior that affects the entire family, especially the children. Public Law #54 (1989) maintains that children who come from homes where domestic violence takes place, carry with them the traces of violent patterns for their entire lives.

Because depression is such a severe mental health condition associated with dysfunctional families, it is important to evaluate the relationship between the development of symptoms associated with depression and living in homes where domestic violence is observed.

Studies and Statistics on Domestic Violence and Depression in Puerto Rico

The problem of domestic violence has been a serious one in Puerto Rico. According to statistics of the Puerto Rico Police Department (2001), 17,770 complaints were registered in Puerto Rico in 2001. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Psychometric Properties of the Spanish-Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children Who Are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.