Production of Ceramics of Narva Culture (Reconstrucions Based on Experimental archaeology)/Narva Kultuuri Keraamika Valmistamine (Eksperimentaalarheoloogilised Rekonstruktsioonid)

By Miksaite, Sigita | Estonian Journal of Archaeology, June 2005 | Go to article overview

Production of Ceramics of Narva Culture (Reconstrucions Based on Experimental archaeology)/Narva Kultuuri Keraamika Valmistamine (Eksperimentaalarheoloogilised Rekonstruktsioonid)


Miksaite, Sigita, Estonian Journal of Archaeology


Vilniuse Keraamikute Gildi korraldatud arhailise keraamika valmistamise laager Trakais (Leedu) on seadnud endale eesmargiks teha savinousid, mis sarnanevad originaalsetega nii palju kui voimalik. Selleks on valja valitud konkreetsed arheoloogilised leiud ning puutud rekonstrueerida neid koigi voimalike parameetrite alusel.

Neoliitilise keraamika valmistamise pohietapid on jargmised: savimassi ettevalmistamine, nou vormimine, pinna ornamentimine, nou kuivatamine ja poletamine. Koiki neid etappe puuti projekti kaigus uksikasjalikult tundma oppida.

Savimassi ettevalmistamine on keraamika tegemisel uks olulisemaid etappe. Savinou vastupidavus poletamisel soltub otseselt savi segamisest ja sellele lisatud materjah omadustest. Keraamikalaagris pustitati toohupotees hobusesonniku kasutamisest savimassi ettevalmistamisel, kuid hoolimata paljudest katsetest jai kusimus endiselt lahtiseks.

Neoliitiliste savinoude valmistamisel kasutati erinevaid savilinte, mida voidi uhendada kahel eri viisil: U- ja N-tuupi uhendusega. Narva-tuupi keraamika ornamentika sisaldas mitmeid elemente: lohud, kammivajutused ja noortekstiili pressingud. Koige sagedasemateks ornamendimotiivideks olid siiski vaikesed umarad voi nelinurksed lohud, mille tegemiseks kasutati looduses leiduvaid vahendeid: pulgakesi, teokarpe, kasetohutukke.

Koige raskem ja vastutusrikkam too oli keraamika poletamine, mis nouab rohkesti kogemusi ja oskusi. Trakai laagris katsetati kaht poletusviisi. Esimesel juhul asetati savinoud poletusauku, mis taideti puudega ja suudati seejarel polema. Teisel juhul laoti savinoud ja puud korraparasesse riita, mis kaeti tambitud savikihiga. Narva-tuupi savinoude varvuse pohjal otsustades voib arvata, et neid poletati usna madalal temperatuuril (400-750[degrees]C); seda voib nimetada pigem kuivatamiseks kui poletamiseks.

Parast poletamist oli vajalik katta nou pinnad vettpidava vahendiga voi kasutada muid voimalusi niiskuslabivuse peatamiseks. Arvatakse, et selle tegemiseks kasutati neoliitikumis kaht meetodit: noupinnad kaeti kas vaiguga voi keedeti nou sees toitu, kuni see korbes nou pinda sisse ja kattis poorid.

Olles tundma oppinud Narva-tuupi keraamika valmistamistehnoloogia detaile, voib vaita, et neoliitilised pottsepad olid saavutanud valjapaistva professionaalse taseme.

Introduction

In the East Baltic region where the cultures of hunters and fishermen lasted longer than in Central Europe, the appearance of ceramics is considered to be a very important feature indicating the beginning of the new Neolithic age. In Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian historiography such an approach has been and still is dominating (Rimantiene 1996; Girininkas 1994; Kriiska 2001; Loze 2001; Brazaitis 2003). In Lithuania, the early start of the Neolithic is dated 5500/5300 cal. BC (Antanaitis-Jacobs & Girininkas 2002). Latvian archaeologists start the Early Neolithic since 5500 cal. BC (Loze 2001), Estonia dates it 4900 cal. BC (Lang & Kriiska 2001).

For the archaeologists investigating the Neolithic culture, forms of ceramics, mixtures and ornamentation served as the base for the cultural evolution schemes and reflect traditions of history. In their work researchers do not ignore questions related to the production and use of ceramics. However, these issues are often considered secondary. Therefore, it is indispensable to trace all the stages of the vessels' production process.

The aim of the described experiments within this research work was to reconstruct production technologies and traditions of Narva-type ceramics, to ascertain different ways of pottery molding and decoration of their surface using many different tools. We tried to look at ceramics production from a Neolithic potter's point of view and strove to perceive concrete traditions of the ceramics production. Pottery has been molded on the basis of the analogues from Sventoji 6th settlement, Daktariskes 5th settlement and Zemaitiskes 2nd settlement (Lithuania; Fig. …

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Production of Ceramics of Narva Culture (Reconstrucions Based on Experimental archaeology)/Narva Kultuuri Keraamika Valmistamine (Eksperimentaalarheoloogilised Rekonstruktsioonid)
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