The Practice of Information Processing Model in the Teaching of Cognitive Strategies
Ozel, Ali, Journal of Instructional Psychology
In this research, the differentiation condition of teaching the learning strategies depending on the time which the first grade of primary school teachers carried out to form an information-process skeleton on student is tried to be found out. This process including the efforts of 260 teachers in this direction consists of whether the adequate time is separated for teaching these learning strategies and the direction of tactical teachings presented on which strategies are intensively taught. In conclusion; it is understood that teachers separate more time for motivation and repetition strategies; however they do not have systematic activities to form information--process model for students.
Cognitive theories suggest that learning occurs with the result of information formation developing with dominant priorities. According to this, learning is based on that a learner processes the information that he configured with his own cognitive process and this process shapes new learning. The advances in this direction are related to what they learn and how they learn, not how much they learn. The main metaphor expected to be argued is, perhaps, students are active learners rather than they are passive receivers (Mayer, 1992).
Increasing efficiency in learning processes in this direction is possible with understanding how learning occurs in an individual. This requires full-using the individual capacity mentally. According to the cognitive theorists learning is a mental process which requires to be perceived, configured and remembered the outsider stimulus. At the present day, the learning approach that explains learning in the most comprehensive way is known as information processing model. According to this model; learning is an individual's attribution to the things happening around him with his past life, memory form and model. In this context there are two significant subjects. The first one is the individual is an active and specific existence searching for information, the second one is the individual interprets the stimulus at cognitive level with his advance information in this searching process (Babadogan, 1995; Ozden, 1998).
According to this model information acquisition is the forms an individual has and the relationships correlation resulting from processes related to these forms. These relations imply the events take place in mind like perception, attention, and interpretation and recall (Bacanli, 2002; Ozden, 1998).
In information processing model the focal point is the individual and his living space. The individual's bio-genetic potential, his mind of habit prone to develop this potential and his social interaction field are identifiers of both his learning and his learning forms. These forms determine the learner's mental influence field in which he follows his learning life and interpret the orientation field of next learning in advance. Interpreting the individual's learning life according to his near environment in which the individual is impressed and keeping him developing indicates his individual discipline (Ramsland, 1998). The information chosen intentionally as a result of being directed of certain interests acquires a different character with the effect of external environment. Brain needs to form a model from the information coming this way when needed and to connect a link with the outside world via this model (Ayer, Broad, & Moore, 1984). Because brain has features that guiding information, deciding and forming the information according to itself. A student gets information in his cognition forms actively and makes it pioneer for his future decisions by forming it his past information (Asan, & Gunes, 2000; Cannon, 1997; Gurol, 2002; Ulgen, 2001; Wheatley, 1991).
Information processing model that is meaningful according to an individual, in this context, looks for answers the following four questions.
1. How is new information taken from outside? …