The Eagle of Fascism Soars: Democratic Forces in Berlusconi's Italy Are Increasingly Beleaguered. More Than Ever They Need Our Support, Not Our Silence and Consent
Jacques, Martin, New Statesman (1996)
Until the rise of Silvio Berlusconi in 1994, few would have thought that a major western European country could once again fall under something resembling the spell of fascism. Fifteen years later, Italy is unrecognisable, home to a process of political change that should be watched -and feared - by everyone in Europe. It is a warning of how the fabric of democracy can be progressively undermined from within, and that, far from being external and alien, the seeds of authoritarianism lie within the body politic.
The term fascism is so defined by powerful historical imagery that the phenomenon itself seems to be of historical relevance only; yet Berlusconi is an extremely modern figure, reflecting the worst and most insidious features of contemporary western and, in particular, Italian culture. Nor should our concerns be lessened or diluted by what might be described as the more superficial and comical aspects of Italian culture: non-Italians generally see both Mussolini and Berlusconi, to some degree, as figures of fun and ridicule. Every nation has its specificities.
Berlusconi enjoys ever-growing power. In a country which, by way of a deliberate response to the Mussolini experience, has had weak and short-lived governments since the Second World War, there seems little doubt that he will see out his full five-year term. His party, the self-styled People of Freedom, dominates the government majority in a way quite different from the rancorous divisions of his previous administrations. The opposition left, which, ever since the rise of Berlusconi, has been a story of miserable failure - a patent inability to grasp what he represented and how he needed to be fought, outwitted at almost every stage - is ineffectual and rudderless, in desperate need of a latter-day Gramsci or Togliatti to give it a sense of direction. But neither of these features - the unity of the right and the ineffectuality of the left- is the key to understanding Berlusconi as a totalitarian and anti-democratic political phenomenon.
That lies in two other characteristics: the erosion of independent centres of power and authority, combined with Berlusconi's ownership and control of large sections of the media; and the steady moulding of a new, popular common sense. That Berlusconi owns three of the major TV channels in Italy and controls another three in his capacity as prime minister, as well as having a major stake in newspapers, magazines and publishing (not forgetting the football club he owns, AC Milan), has been crucial, from the outset, to his ability to influence public opinion. There is no other European country where there is such a coincidence of personal, political and media power.
Meanwhile, he has systematically fought to discredit the judiciary, accusing the judges of being agents of the left, to the point where, from being heroes of the "Tangentopoli" scandal in the early 1990s, they are now widely discredited. Or, to put it another way, bit by bit the separation of powers, so crucial to the well-being of any democracy, is being undermined and replaced by an extraordinary concentration of power in the hands of one man. …