Heritage Pride and Advertising Effectiveness: The Mexican Case
Maldonado, Cecilia, Lazo, Susana, Carranza, Adriana, Academy of Marketing Studies Journal
Heritage Pride is defined as a mild positive emotion of worth and dignity for those elements that people inherit as members of a community. Heritage Pride has two sub-domains: 1) Cultural Heritage Pride (CHP) is the feeling for those elements that represent a culture and that may go beyond the geographical constrains of a country (i.e. language, music, religion, or traditions); and 2) National Heritage Pride (NHP) is the feeling for those elements that represent a country and that are inside the geographical boundaries of a country (i.e. the national flag, the national hymn, historic monuments, or natural places). Even when a flag from one country travels around the world, it represents a well defined geographical country.
Immigration is a social phenomenon that is affecting the US population. Immigrants come mainly from Asia and Latin America (Lee & Bean, 2007). According to the US Census, Hispanic population in 2006 was more than 43 million and those having Mexican origin composed almost 64%. Indeed, Hispanic is the largest minority in the US with a growth rate of more than 24% and it is expected that by 2050 the Hispanic population will reach more than 100 million (MacDonald, 2006).
This study has three purposes. The first purpose is to define and create the instrument to measure Heritage Pride. By following the well known Churchill's (1979) paradigm of scale development, this study assures a valid and reliable measurement instrument.
The second purpose of the paper is to investigate the way Heritage Pride changes in immigrants to the US. By using Mexican students, this study assures sample homogeneity. Besides, the education system is a mechanism for social mobility (Crosnoe et al, 2004). Moreover, the justification to study Mexican immigrants is based on the close geographical distance, but at the same time, there is a large cultural distance between the two countries. Similarly, as stated by Garcia & Yang (2006), the US and Mexico represent an important geographical region to study international advertising practices.
And finally the third purpose of this study is to compare advertising effectiveness when cultural and/or national elements are presented in TV advertising. Advertising effectiveness is measured by comparing attitude toward the ad (Neese & Taylor, 1994), attitude toward the product (Holbrook & Batra, 1987; Perachio & Meyers-Levy, 1997), and purchase intention.
The contribution of this paper is not only to meet these purposes, but to go beyond cultural values in advertising literature (e.g. Roberts & Hart, 1997; Ueltschy, 2002; Gregory & Munch, 1997) and investigate the change of feelings in immigrants. It may be that what Stroebe et al (2002) defines as homesickness may change immigrant feelings and that might affect TV advertising effectiveness, thus affecting advertising effectiveness when aroused.
The rest of the paper is organized in the following way. First, the literature review is presented along with the development of the hypotheses. This is followed by the scale development and validation section. Then the methodology section is presented where sample selection, ad selection and experiment design are discussed. This is followed by the result section where the results of the hypotheses are discussed. Finally the conclusion section is presented where discussion, limitations, and future research is suggested.
In order to define Heritage Pride, we need to define two separate elements: heritage and pride. Heritage is considered all the tangibles and intangibles that pass from generation to generation by succession (Webster dictionary). UNESCO defines heritage as our legacy from the past, what we live today, and what we pass on to future generations. It also considers heritage as all the cultural and natural elements around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. …