A Cross-Cultural Validation of Perceived Locus of Causality Scale in Physical Education Context
Wang, C. K. John, Hagger, Martin, Liu, Woon Chia, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
We examined the validity of the factor structure and invariance of the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale instrument scores across two nations endorsing collectivist (Singapore) and individualist (Great Britain) cultural values. Results indicated that confirmatory factor analytic models of the PLOC exhibited adequate fit according to multiple criteria within each sample and across samples. There was invariance in the item-intercepts across the two cultures. In addition, the simplex-like pattern of relations among the PLOC constructs was confirmed within cultures and in invariance analyses. Finally, latent factor means analysis revealed that the British participants tended to rate less self-determined forms of motivation lower than and more self- determined farms of motivation higher than the Singaporean participants.
Key words: behavioral regulation, latent mean analysis, multigroup analysis, serf-determination theory
Understanding motivation in sport and exercise domains is an important endeavor for psychology research. Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory (SDT) is a popular theoretical framework in the study of human motivation in sport and physical activity settings. Central to SDT is the distinction between autonomous and controlling forms of motivation and the effects that these motivational orientations have on behavioral persistence (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Research adopting the SDT framework has identified the adaptive role of autonomous forms of motivation in explaining a number of adaptive outcomes in physical activity and sports, particularly adherence to physical activity behavior (e.g., Chatzisarantis, Biddle, & Meek, 1997; Hagger, Chatzisarantis, & Biddle, 2002; Hagger, Chatzisarantis, Barkoukis, Wang, & Baranowski, 2005).
The motivational orientations are underpinned by three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These needs are assumed to be innate and universal to all humans (Sheldon, Elliott, Kim, & Kasser, 2001). Therefore, the processes that lead to intrinsically motivated behavior will be universal across gender, age, and culture. However, controversy exists as to whether these processes are truly universal and may question the validity of this hypothesis. For example, some researchers argue that autonomous forms of motivation represent western, individualistic values and are less relevant to cultures that endorse more collectivistic cultural norms (e.g., Miller, 1997). On the other hand, studies have shown that autonomous forms of motivation have similar meaning among people from different nations with diverse cultural orientations including the United States, Russia, Turkey, and South Korea (Chirkov & Ryan, 2001; Chirkov, Ryan, Kim, & Kaplan, 2003). According to this culture-centric approach, the generalization of motivation from self-determination theory to other cultural groups may not be justified. The purpose of our study was to investigate the validity of the factor and latent mean structures of measures of the motivation forms from SDT in a physical education (PE) context across two countries, Singapore and Great Britain.
Evaluating the equivalence of the measurement parameters from instruments measuring these motivational orientations is an important endeavor in cross-cultural research as it will test whether the number of factors and items are tenable across these diverse groups and whether measurement parameters share similar variance with their hypothesized latent factors. This equivalence of factor loadings is considered the minimum criterion for measurement invariance (Byrne, Shavelson, & Muthen, 1989). The goal of our study was to provide evidence supporting the universal nature of motivational orientations across groups with diverse cultural norms and assist future research using measures based on self-determination theory to predict physical activity behavior. …