CDifferent Kinds of Learning Styles Defined

Manila Bulletin, July 16, 2009 | Go to article overview

CDifferent Kinds of Learning Styles Defined


INVENTORY OF LEARNING PROCESSES (ILP)The Inventory of Learning Processes (ILP) model was developed by Ronald Schmeck in 1977. From psychology, Schmeck believes cognitive and personality studies, while useful, are not definitive and that learning styles, as a construct, would be more useful.Schmeck defined learning style as a predisposition on the part of some learners to adopt a particular learning strategy regardless of the specific demands of the learning task. Further, learning strategies are patterns of information-processing activities that the individual uses to prepare for a test of memory.Elaborate processors do more than just remember; they classify, compare, contrast, analyze, and synthesize information.Shallow processing is not a separate style, but it is one point on a continuum.The ILP is a self-report instrument comprised of 62 items to assess students’ behavioral and conceptual processes. This true/false format arranged items into four scales: synthesis analysis, study methods, fact retention, and elaborate processing.It is possible to retain facts whether one processes in depth or shallowly. We tend to retain facts when processing deeply. Memorizing is shallow retention.This model sheds light on the authority orientation of the learner who is “eager to please.’PARAGRAPH COMPLETION METHOD (PCM)Paragraph Completion Method (PCM) was developed by Dr. David Hunt in 1978. To Hunt, learning styles are those educational conditions under which students are most likely to learn. There is a need for students to have structure.Learners who have a low conceptual level are concrete, impulsive, and have poor tolerance for frustration.They require a great deal of structure. Learners who have a mid-stage conceptual level are conforming or dependent.They are dependent on rules and authority and are categorical thinkers. They require structure but should be given choices.Learners who have a higher conceptual level are referred to as independent and are described as inquiring, self-assertive, and questioning. They require less structure, and need more choices.Hunt promotes both teaching to student strengths and students changing their styles. For the lower cognitive level students, begin with high structure and gradually decrease the amount to encourageself-initiative.Paragraph Completion Method consists of six lead sentences, which the learner is directed to complete and write about. The specific response is important in terms of the complexity of the response, not the opinion stated.LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY (LSI)Developed by Dr. David Kolb in 1976, the core of the model is a simple description of the learning cycle of how adult experience is translated into concepts, which in turn are used as guides in the choices of new experiences.The experiential learning model has a four stage cycle:1. Immediate concrete experience is the basis for observation and reflection.2. Those observations are assimilated into theory from which new implications for action can be deduced.3. Those implications serve as guides in acting to create new experiences.4. The cycle evolves.To be effective, the learner requires abilities that are opposite: concrete experiences versus abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation versus reflective observation.The LSI is a 9-item assessment with 4 sub-items to be rank ordered by adults. It is designed for and applied to adult organizational systems and management training.Four dominant types of learning styles have emerged most frequently:1. Converger - abstract conceptualization and active experimentationStrength: practical application of ideas2. …

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