Situational and Intrapersonal Moderators of Sport Competition State Anxiety

By Martin, Kathleen A.; Hall, Craig R. | Journal of Sport Behavior, December 1997 | Go to article overview

Situational and Intrapersonal Moderators of Sport Competition State Anxiety


Martin, Kathleen A., Hall, Craig R., Journal of Sport Behavior


In recent years, sport researchers have examined a variety of individual difference and situational variables that may moderate levels of sport competition anxiety (Smith & Smoll, 1990; Vealey, 1990). For example, several researchers have suggested that the social context of the sport competition (i.e., team or individual event) moderates anxiety levels, with individual sports evoking greater anxiety than team sports (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990; Passers, 1982; Scanlan, 1984; Smith & Smoll, 1990). However, research comparing pre-competition state anxiety levels between individual and team athletes has produced equivocal findings. One possible explanation for these conflicting results may stem from the use of between-sport designs which do not control for sport factors and individual differences which may influence the relationship between the team/individual sport situation and sport competition anxiety.

Specifically, some studies have reported that individual sport participants manifest greater state anxiety than team sport participants (Furst & Tenenbaum, 1986; Simon & Martens, 1979), while other researchers have reported no significant differences in state anxiety between team and individual sport athletes (Colley, Roberts, & Chipps, 1985; Tenenbaum & Milgram, 1978). All of these studies compared anxiety levels between athletes from team sports such as basketball and volleyball versus different athletes from different individual sports such as gymnastics, swimming, and track and field. Research suggests that sport factors such as physical contact, threat of physical harm, and subjective versus objective scoring procedures may moderate competitive state anxiety levels (Martens et al., 1990; Simon & Martens, 1979). We are unaware of any studies that have controlled for all of these sport factors simultaneously when comparing athletes' anxiety levels across team and individual sport situations. Thus, any anxiety differences observed between individual and team athletes in previous studies may have been partly due to differences in sport factors other than the individual/team nature of the sport.

Another problem with between-sport comparisons of team versus individual sport anxiety, is that this approach falls to control for the possibility that different sports attract individuals with differential tendencies to experience sport competition anxiety. For example, research suggests that an individual's birth order (i.e., whether one is an only child, first born, second born, youngest, etc.) may affect both the type and degree of involvement in sport (cf. McPherson, Guppy, & McKay, 1976). First born individuals are more likely to avoid sports in which the threat and severity of physical injury is perceived to be high (e.g., diving, hurdling, skiing, gymnastics, and wrestling; Casher, 1977) and the opportunity to affiliate under stress tends to be low (Casher, 1977; Nisbett 1968; Yiannakis, 1976). Research also suggests that first borns experience stronger anxiety responses than later born individuals under a variety of anxiety-arousing situations (Kushnir, 1978). Thus, studies comparing team and individual sport participants' anxiety levels should control for individual difference factors such as birth order which may moderate the composition of sport groups as well as anxiety levels.

While a few studies have looked at birth order and anxiety related to potential physical harm in motor contexts (Alberts & Landers, 1977; Landers, 1979), the relationship between birth order and sport competition anxiety has received virtually no attention. As first born children are socialized into sport differently (Ebihara, Ikeda, & Myiashita, 1983; Landers, 1979), identification of birth order differences in state anxiety levels may shed some light on socialization factors that are responsible for individual differences in competitive anxiety. For example, parents have higher expectations of their first born children (e. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Situational and Intrapersonal Moderators of Sport Competition State Anxiety
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.