Business Paradigms in Einstellung: Harnessing Creative Mindsets, a Creative Industries Perspective

By Penaluna, Andrew; Penaluna, Kathryn | Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Spring 2008 | Go to article overview

Business Paradigms in Einstellung: Harnessing Creative Mindsets, a Creative Industries Perspective


Penaluna, Andrew, Penaluna, Kathryn, Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship


Introduction

This paper offers the reader some insight into the methodological considerations and pedagogical approaches that are emerging in the communities of practice that are broadly termed "Creative Industries," focusing on a case study that was undertaken at the Swansea Institute of Higher Education. Described as "innovative entrepreneurship education and development," this was one of five programmes selected for "in depth" observation by the UK's Higher Education Academy--Art, Design and Media Subject Centre (HEA-ADM) and National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA). The approach was identified as a distinct model for delivering enterprise to the creative industries sector (HEA-ADM/NESTA, 2007: 22). Moreover, it is an early response to their call for "clear frameworks... for art, design and media based on evidence for effective practice that will offer guidance to curriculum developers and their collaborators." (HEA-ADM/NESTA, 2007: 114) The research and associated case study have also been recognised to have the potential for broader dissemination and discussion, receiving extremely favourable responses from international conferences.

The term "Einstellung," in the title of the paper, refers to the einstellung effect. It is a condition where the "individual has discovered a strategy that initially functions well in solving certain tasks, but later blocks the realization of new and simpler solutions to similar problems" (Kaufmann, 1988: 55)--a natural phenomenon that preserves cognitive economy and is often referred to as simply "not thinking outside the box."

The authors argue that there are many similarities between emerging entrepreneurship education pedagogies and those that are already well established in the disciplines of design education--predominantly in the domain of art and design. It is considered important, therefore, to discuss the cultural and educational differences that this sector has experienced, and the manner by which the lessons learned might benefit other communities of practice. The Cox Review of Creativity in Business: Building on the UK's strengths (2005) and the UK Department of Trade and Industry (2005) suggest similar strategies, yet Blackwell and Harvey's (1999) comments regarding the "paucity of research" in this area suggest that much is still to be done, an observation borne out by the authors' observations and experiences. For example, discussion commonly focuses on the creative aspects of entrepreneurship, yet there is little evidence of the manner in which creative mindsets can and have been harnessed. It is this dearth of research that the paper makes some small attempt to redress.

A core objective of entrepreneurship education that differentiates it from typical business education is "to generate more quickly a greater variety of different ideas for how to exploit a business opportunity, and the ability to project a more extensive sequence of actions for entering business" (Vesper and McMullen, 1988: 9). Rae (1997, 199) observes that "the skills traditionally taught in business schools are essential but not sufficient to make a successful entrepreneur."

Recognising that the successful entrepreneur has personal skills, attributes and behaviours that extend beyond the purely commercial (Gibb, 1998 and Kirby, 2003a), the challenge to higher education institutions is to develop students with entrepreneurial capabilities that meet the entrepreneurial challenges of the 21st century knowledge economy. Professor David Kirby, Chair of the Internationalizing Entrepreneurship Education and Training conference 2005, raises the question, "Entrepreneurship education--can business schools meet the challenge?" (Kirby, 2003b).

Accepting a general agreement that entrepreneurship can be taught, or at least encouraged, there is little uniformity in programme offerings (Gorman, Hanlon and King, 1997). Measurement of the impact that entrepreneurial education has on its students' behaviours, skills and attitudes requires a uniform method of evaluation which facilitates comparisons between students, faculty, pedagogical method, course content, and other variables (Block and Stumpf, 1992 and Solomon, Duffy and Tarabishy 2002). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Business Paradigms in Einstellung: Harnessing Creative Mindsets, a Creative Industries Perspective
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.