Need for Lesson Analysis in Effective Lesson Planning

By Panasuk, Regina M.; Sullivan, Mary M. | Education, Spring 1998 | Go to article overview

Need for Lesson Analysis in Effective Lesson Planning


Panasuk, Regina M., Sullivan, Mary M., Education


In the instructional process the lesson is the primary organizing structure. While developing and presenting a lesson, a classroom teacher confronts many pedagogical issues and makes choices directed toward assisting students to acquire knowledge, apply new information to practical activities, and construct beliefs. We view a contemporary lesson as a complex, dynamic system, and its analysis regulates and correlates interconnections and continuously improves the entire educational process. The use of the descriptor "dynamic" indicates our intent that analyses of lessons produce continuous change in the practice of teaching by an individual. By "complex" we intend to convey the idea that the totality of the lesson is greater than the sum of its parts. Achieving quality in lessons depends not only upon the teacher's ability to present material but also to analyze learning outcomes and assess the pedagogical communication.

Since the nature of the lesson is complex, it can be analyzed from different positions. The methodological perspective includes an analysis of approaches, teaching techniques, and methods. The psychological analysis considers the development of the student's cognitive structure and personality. In order to achieve a high degree of professionalism, a teacher must know how to observe lessons and be able to analyze the methodology in light of the developmental level and academic potential of the students. The teacher must be able to identify the factors that determine the success of the pedagogical activity.

The development of preservice teachers' ability to construct, conduct and analyze a lesson is an essential component in their professional training. In order for aspiring teachers to be able to critically evaluate the pedagogical work of others and themselves, they must study lesson observation and analysis and acquire a knowledge base that is systematic and clearly differentiated. To become flexible, dynamic teachers, they must think independently and develop abilities of reflection in order to make decisions about pedagogical situations in future lessons. In this paper, we consider the psychological and methodological aspects of lesson observation and analysis.

Analysis of Psychological Factors

Theoretical knowledge from educational psychology and sociology of the classroom merges into a theory of teaching that is woven together with the discipline content. Current theories of teaching and learning embody (a) cognitive psychology, in acknowledging prior learning, accepting the active nature of learning, and recognizing that learners construct their understanding; (b) philosophy, in the unity of thought and action; (c) developmental psychology, in asserting that the mind develops through activity; (d) educational methodology, through inclusion of exactness and accessibility of the content, systematic presentation approach, and appropriate use of concrete manipulative materials and visual aids; and (e) leading theories related to content. The teacher, aware that the student who is learning content is also engaged in the dynamic process of personal development, cannot allow the content of the lesson to be an end in itself.

The observation and analysis of a lesson from the aspect of students' psychological development must be based on theories related to development. Observers note first, whether the formation of the lesson's objectives exhibits the teacher's understanding of learning in terms of scope and sequence of the material and second, whether the interaction of the teacher and students reflects an understanding of students' personal development, including effects of teacher methods and actions on student development.

Observers look for evidence in the lesson that the teacher reflects on students' activity and evidence that students are provided with an opportunity to look at and analyze their own involvement and learning. Ideally, the teacher's interaction with students, evident to observers through verbal comments, reflects understanding of students' relationship to the learning, their difficulties, their feelings of accomplishment, and even their discontent. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Need for Lesson Analysis in Effective Lesson Planning
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.