Goal Orientation and the Modeling Process: An Individual's Focus on Form and Outcome

By Berlant, Anthony R.; Weiss, Maureen R. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, December 1997 | Go to article overview

Goal Orientation and the Modeling Process: An Individual's Focus on Form and Outcome


Berlant, Anthony R., Weiss, Maureen R., Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Visual demonstrations are widely accepted as a viable means of teaching individuals a variety of sport skills. The process by which individuals attempt to perform a skill demonstrated by another is called modeling. Several theorists have offered explanations regarding how an individual acquires information about a skill through observation and what the structure of that information is. Bandura (1977, 1986) and Yando, Seitz, and Zigler (1978) discussed the important cognitive mechanisms (e.g., attention, retention) involved in the process of acquiring information, and Scully and Newell (1985) suggested that the information being acquired is the relative motion of the modeled action. However, these theories scarcely discuss the importance of the individual's motivation in learning observed skills. Specifically, they do not clearly explain why an individual attempts to learn through observation. In addition to performance, a comprehensive theory of modeling should include an explanation for why one chooses to observe a model in the first place, as well as an explanation for individual differences in the learning of demonstrated motor skills.

Bandura's (1977, 1986) social cognitive theory has been the most influential framework used to study the acquisition of motor skills (McCullagh, Weiss, & Ross, 1989). This theory suggests that modeling of motor skills proceeds through learning and performance phases, with each consisting of two subprocesses. In the learning phase, observers must pay attention to relevant characteristics of the motor skill demonstration and remember what they have observed in order for behavioral reproduction to occur at a later time. Through attention and retention, they acquire a cognitive representation of the skill. Using this cognitive representation as a guide, observers in the performance phase must have the necessary physical capacities (e.g., strength) for motor reproduction to occur. This, however, is not a guarantee that the skill will be reproduced, because individuals also need to be motivated to perform the skill they have observed.

The majority of modeling research has examined factors that affect each of these phases or subprocesses. Researchers have explored model characteristics such as model status (e.g., Lirgg & Feltz, 1991; McCullagh, 1986) and model similarity (e.g., George, Feltz, & Chase, 1992; Gould & Weiss, 1981; McCullagh, 1987), because these are theoretically suggested to affect one's attraction to a model and, thus, one's attention. Retentional factors such as coding and rehearsal strategies (Carroll & Bandura, 1985) have been examined in adults as well as children (see Weiss, Ebbeck, & Wiese-Bjornstal, 1993, for a review). Studies that have examined the motor reproduction subprocess of modeling have studied the concurrent versus delayed modeling (Carroll & Bandura, 1987) and concurrent versus delayed augmented visual feedback (Carroll & Bandura, 1985).

Research on the motivational subprocess of modeling, however, has received much less attention in the physical domain. Only a few studies (Feltz & Landers, 1977; Little & McCullagh, 1989) have examined the effects of intrinsic, extrinsic, or vicarious incentives on performance within Bandura's (1986) conceptualization. In addition, Bandura suggested that model similarity can either raise or lower one's self-efficacy for performing the skill that one has observed, which in turn affects one's motivation for performing the skill. Research on motivational aspects of modeling has investigated the effects of model similarity on variables such as motor performance and self-efficacy (Gould & Weiss, 1981; McCullagh, 1987). Alternatively, Yando et al. (1978) suggested that individuals may have competence motives for modeling a skill. That is, individuals can be motivated to develop or demonstrate competence for themselves or others. This motive seems especially relevant for an achievement context such as sport. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Goal Orientation and the Modeling Process: An Individual's Focus on Form and Outcome
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.