Anger as a Predictor of Suicidal Ideation in Middle-School Students in Korea: Gender Difference in Threshold Point

By Lee, Jongeun; Choi, Heeseung et al. | Adolescence, Summer 2009 | Go to article overview

Anger as a Predictor of Suicidal Ideation in Middle-School Students in Korea: Gender Difference in Threshold Point


Lee, Jongeun, Choi, Heeseung, Kim, Mi Ja, Park, Chang Gi, Shin, Dong-soo, Adolescence


INTRODUCTION

Suicide is an overarching social concern that affects all age groups. In recent years, there has been growing concern regarding the increasing rates of suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) in the United States showed that 8.4% of high school students attempted suicide one or more times in the previous 12 months (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). In Korea, 11.6% of middle and high school students reported attempting suicide, which is a higher rate than that for their U.S. counterparts (H.S. Kim & Kim, 2008). Suicide was one of the two most prevalent causes of death in Korean adolescents, and the first leading cause of death among girls in 2006 (Korea National Statistical Office, 2007).

Persons with suicidal tendencies are categorized into three groups: those with suicidal ideation, those who attempted suicide, and those who have completed suicide (Linehan, 1986). In the YRBS survey, 16.9% of participants (21.8% of girls and 12.0% of boys) reported seriously considering suicide in the past 12 months (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher than the rate of suicide attempt (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007), and suicidal ideation may be the earliest recognition o-f suicidal tendencies (Keane, Dick, Bechtold, & Manson, 1996). This paper focuses on suicidal ideation, which may lend itself to being an indicator of when to initiate actions most likely to prevent an actual suicide attempt.

Risk factors for suicidal tendencies among adolescents have been reported by numerous studies. These include the relationships between various personality and temperamental factors and adolescents' susceptibility to suicidal tendencies such as anxiety, depression, anger, aggression, impulsivity, and helplessness (Conner, Meldrum, Wieczorek, Duberstein, & Welte, 2004; Fennig et al., 2005; Horesh, Orbach, Gothelf, Efrati, & Apter, 2003; Park, Schepp, Jang, & Koo, 2006). Social, familial, and environmental factors were also studied to determine the extent of their influence on suicide risk in adolescents (Heo, 2007; Park et al., 2006). A lack of social support is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation, whereas strong family support protects adolescents from suicidal ideation (Heo, 2007). Park et al. found that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse are significant predictors of suicidal ideation, particularly for boys. Sexuality, body image, and social challenges may result in further stress to the adolescent that could lead to a state of depression, which is the most common cause of suicide (Giddens, 2007). Experience at school is another significant factor determining the vulnerability to suicide. Dealing with school-related stress including building and maintaining close peer relationships, completing day-to-day school work, getting good grades, and being accepted in prestigious colleges places adolescents at increased risk for suicidal ideation (Giddens, 2007).

Among those identified risk factors, anger has long been considered crucial in the development of suicidal tendencies (Goldney, Winefield, Saebel, Winefield, & Tiggeman, 1997). If a person is not allowed to or is unable to express anger outwardly, anger turned inwards may result in depression, guilt, shame, anxiety or lethargy (Tavris, 1989). Adolescents encounter many anger-producing situations, such as disappointment, pain, and frustration. A major problem for adolescents is lack of skills and resources required to manage and express anger in acceptable ways (Jones, Peacock, & Christopher, 1992). Adolescents may be unable to express anger to persons in authority positions, such as mothers, fathers or teachers. This is particularly true in Korean culture, which considers suppressing anger as a good deed or a virtue. This can be seen in Chon's report (1999) that "loved ones" as the target of anger was quite low in Korea (2%) compared to the U. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Anger as a Predictor of Suicidal Ideation in Middle-School Students in Korea: Gender Difference in Threshold Point
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.