Alexander Calder

By Rimanelli, David | Artforum International, Summer 1998 | Go to article overview

Alexander Calder


Rimanelli, David, Artforum International


NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART

For years a forced dose of Alexander Calder's Circus, 1926-31, every time I passed through the lobby of the Whitney reduced his art to irredeemable kitsch. Of course, beauty and kitsch are by no means mutually exclusive; in fact, the "in" where my renewed appreciation of Calder's work is concerned came via an unexpected route: Mark Robson's 1967 movie version of Jacqueline Susann's Valley of the Dolls. Camp queens have always thrilled to the sequence in which the Ethel Merman-esque Helen Lawson character, played by Susan Hayward, wows the audience of a New Haven theater with a show-stopping, razzle-dazzle anthem of personal autonomy performed in the psychedelic shadows of a whirling, Calderian mobile. Special lighting effects gave the whole ensemble the aesthetic charge of disco illumination avant la lettre. "I'll plant my own tree, and I'll make it grow," Lawson belts out, and one realizes that she is the tree trunk, and the Calder thing's the leaves and branches. It's trippy. Dipping into the literature that accompanies the National Gallery of Art's centennial retrospective, I began to think my moment of access to the meaning and beauty of Calder's art wasn't so off. Consider Henri Pichette in "Poem to Alexander Calder and Louisa" (1954): "My ancestor, the mobile said, is the Tree Moved by the Wind." What the Valley of the Dolls sequence succinctly represents is the movement from Calder's own originary aesthetic moments, under the influence of the biomorphism of Jean Arp, Joan Miro, Yves Tanguy, etc., to the threshold of '60s psychedelia. Such are the vagaries of the reciprocity of high art and popular decor: Calder is one of those figures whose absorption into popular taste is so absolute, whose work feels so generically moderne, that it is difficult to see his art at all. The National Gallery's retrospective offers a welcome chance to return to Calder himself, to a beauty ossified long enough under the weight of too many baby-crib mobiles and hack public commissions.

While at his best Calder achieves grand effects, at heart he always remained something of a tinkerer. His parents were established Philadelphia artists working in academic traditions, but initially Calder opted for the more prosaic career of mechanical engineer - a choice that obviously served him well when it came to his innovation of the mobile. "I spent my childhood as a boy . . . always enthusiastic about toys and string, and always a junkman of bits of wire and all the prettiest stuff in the garbage can," the artist recalled in a 1929 biographic statement. Calder's best pieces still suggest the playroom, and string and wire cleverly deployed in combination with the "junk" of metal plates form the basis of his art. Even when largish, they retain a sense of delicacy, like Pichette's tree gently rustled by the wind. Which is why the huge, heavy mobile that is a permanent fixture of the East Building atrium is so ghastly: it is a graceless oversize bat frozen in space, undoubtedly more at home in a museum of aeronautics. …

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