Affective Responses before and after Fraudulent Excuses by Academic Procrastinators

By Ferrari, Joseph R.; Beck, Brett L. | Education, Summer 1998 | Go to article overview

Affective Responses before and after Fraudulent Excuses by Academic Procrastinators


Ferrari, Joseph R., Beck, Brett L., Education


Approximately 70% of U.S. college students engage in frequent academic procrastination (Ellis & Knaus, 1977; Hill, Hill, Chabot, & Barrall, 1978), the purposive delay in beginning or completing academically-related tasks. Studies indicate that fear of failure and aversiveness of the task may be primary motives for academic procrastination (Milgram, Batori, & Mowrer, 1993; Schouwenburg, 1995: Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). College students reported procrastinating more often when writing a term paper than when reading an assignment, studying for an exam, or attending to academic and administrative tasks (Rothblum, Solomon, & Murakami, 1986; Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). Frequent academic procrastination has been found across racial categories and regardless of student gender (Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995). Academic procrastination also is associated with missing deadlines for submitting assignments, delaying the taking of self-paced quizzes, claiming test anxiety, obtaining low course and semester grades, and low cumulative GPA (Beswick, Rothblum, & Mann, 1988; Clark & Hill, 1994; Lay & Burns, 1991; Rothblum et al., 1986; Wolfe & Johnson, 1995).

In sum, it seems that academic procrastination may be a way to escape immediate (perceived) aversive tasks or consequences, but seems to have negative consequences for the person (Ferrari, et al., 1995). The present study sought to investigate the "affective experiences of fibbing" by academic procrastinators. Specifically, college students stated their positive or negative affect when phony reasons or excuses for delaying academic related tasks. This information may contribute to an understanding of the relationship between affect and forms of procrastination (Lay, 1995; Lay & Silverman, 1996). Furthermore, it may provide useful information for educational personnel who design intervention programs for college students.

Few studies have investigated the desire by students to avoid academic tasks by generating academic excuses. In an unpublished master's thesis, Beck (1985) reported that 60% of college students reported using a false excuse to avoid taking a scheduled test or turning in an assignment on time. Keene, Levine, and Ferrari (1995) replicated this study by comparing students from colleges with selective or nonselective admission standards. In that study greater than 65% of students across settings self-reported that they used phony excuses. Caron, Krauss-Whitbourne, and Halgin (1992) found that while 68% of college students reported using fraudulent excuses, over 90% of the time instructors fail to ask for evidence or "proof" for the proposed excuses. To the extent that procrastination is a purposive avoidance strategy, it follows that academic procrastinators exceed nonprocrastinators in generating excuses for not completing academic tasks.

In addition, research has found that negative affect was related to chronic, everyday procrastination (Lay, 1995). From four experimental studies, Lay (1995) concluded that chronic procrastinators compared to nonprocrastinators more often experienced dejection-related emotions (depression) when faced with academically-related tasks. Dejection emotions were reported by trait procrastinators when simply asked to indicate how they felt during the past week or at the moment, and when rating how they felt about ongoing projects involving deadlines or study behaviors prior to an exam. Agitation-related emotions (e.g., anxiety) were unrelated to the academic set of tasks. Lay and Silverman (1996) reported that agitation among chronic procrastinators played a minor (at best) role in predicting dilatory behavior either at pre-examination or exam-day. Studies found that chronic, everyday procrastination and situational academic procrastination are related, but not identical concepts (see Ferrari et al., 1995). Despite the association between chronic procrastination and affect, it is unclear how procrastination in academic situations may be related to their emotional responses to phony excuses. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Affective Responses before and after Fraudulent Excuses by Academic Procrastinators
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.