Geographical Information Systems and Urban Management
Radut, Carmen, Chitu, Ramona, Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management
As early as the late 1990's Geographical Information Systems come into a new stage. Now, GIS try to become a tool for information decision and manipulation. GIS is now directed towards Web, becoming more popular. Here are the main events that characterize this stage.
1996: Jo Wood implements the first version of Land Serf, an useful application for analyzing digital models (DEM)
1997: University of Minnesota launches Map Server 1.0, an open-source application. ESRI launches Arc View Internet Mp Server (IMS) a commercial instrument that allows GIS data processing on the Internet
1998: TerraServer appears as a common research project between Aerial Images, Microsoft, USGS and Compaq.
1999: Grass 5.0. application is launched, Maguire, Goodchild, and Rhind publishes the paper "Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications", 2nd edition, Longley et al. (2005). MapQuest makes over 130000000 maps. GIS Day is launched. IKONOS satellite is launched with 90cm resolution in panchromatic. Terra satellite is also launched in this year, the one that provides MODIS satellite images (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), beside Aqua satellite. CSI is organized (CGIAR-CSI), that get together all GIS tele detection and research in agriculture laboratories from over the world..
2000: Tele Atlas Company takes over ETAK company. DHI Water & Environment is founded, after the merge between Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) and VKI--Institute for the Water Environment.
2001: Refraction Research launches PostGIS 0.1 application, an open-source application, able to support relational data base for PostgreSQL. ESRI starts the implementation of ArcGis 8.1 application. Quickbird satellite is launched, with a 62 cm resolution in panchromatic. Global Mapper Software LLC is also set up this year.
2002: ESRI company starts to offer a wide range of products available for Linux (ArcIMS 4, ArcSDE 8.2, MapObjects-Java Standard Edition, si ArcExplorer 4 operating systems. Kodak Company takes over RSI (Research Systems, Inc.). The National Atlas of The United States of America is launched.. 2003: RSI Global Services starts Kodak products commercialization, using JPEG 2000 format. USA government initiative is put into practice.
2004: ESRI launches ArcGis 9 application, including ArcGIS Engine and ArcGIS Server products. RSI together with Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) a division of Eastman Kodak Company are taken over by ITT Corporation.
2006: GRASS 6.1.0 version is launched. At Lausanne, Switzerland takes place "FOSS4G2006--Free And Open Source Software for Geoinformatics".
2007: Leica Geosystems buys ER Mapper. ESRI informed on the first public version of ArcGIS Explorer 9.2. DLR made public samples of the first images captured with the help of a radar placed on board of TerraSAR-X. ESRI made public Service Pack 3 for ArcGIS 9.2, ArcIMS 9.2 and ArcSDE 9.2. FOSS4G2007--Free And Open Source Software for Geoinformatics" takes place, an event that was supported by Victory, Canada. 2007/2/CE directive of the European Council and Parliament is adopted, for establishing an Infrastructure for spatial data in the European Union, named INSPIRE. GIS technology, Coors (2003),combines usual operations with data bases such as statistical analysis or questioning with unique advantages offered by maps for geographical observation and analysis, based on spatial data. GIS allow maps creation, information integration, landscapes viewing, difficult problems solving and efficient solutions development in a new manner, easy to use.
After 1989, cities of Romania have more and more often started to manage their territory, and problems related to transition and public administration reform required more financial resources than they could afford. …