Concurrent Validity between Teacher Efficacy and Perceptions of Response to Intervention Outcomes
Nunn, Gerald D., Jantz, Paul B., Butikofer, Cynthia, Journal of Instructional Psychology
This study examined concurrent validity between the Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Behaviors Scale-TEBBS (Nunn, 1998) with the Indicators of RtI Effectiveness Scale-IRES (Nunn, 1999). A total of 429, K-12 educators participating in a statewide RtI initiative were respondents. Pearson Product-Moment correlations indicated significant relationships between TEBBS scales of Instructional Methods Efficacy (IME), Motivational Methods Efficacy (MME) and External Control Efficacy (ECE) with IRES scales of Effectiveness of Interventions (EI), Satisfaction with RtI Results (SRR), Collaborative Teaming and Intervention (CTI), and Data-Based Decision-Making (DBDM). Discussion of prior research and heuristic value of this research is provided.
As Ashton (1986) has pointed out, the concept of "teacher efficacy" is the belief that teachers develop regarding their influence upon student learning and behavioral outcomes. Researchers have demonstrated the importance of this concept as related to several significant educational outcomes such as teacher persistence (Gibson & Dembo, 1984), enthusiasm (Guskey, 1984), behavioral management (Woolfolk, Rosoff, & Hoy, 1990), willingness to initiate and maintain educational innovations (Guskey, 1988), effectiveness in promoting student achievement (Ross, 1992), motivating students (Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1989), and influencing the development of self-efficacy in students (Anderson, Greene, & Loewen, 1988).
As Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, and Hoy (1998) note, the importance of examining how teacher efficacy is associated with correlates in the educational environment has important implications for both teacher and student success. With this in mind, a particularly timely topic for educators is Response to Intervention or RtI. RtI has been stimulated by recent legislative mandates, e.g. IDEIA (2004), which encourage greater accountability for results of efforts in general education that support the learning needs of all children. Within these mandates is emphasis upon utilizing scientifically-based interventions and ongoing systematic progress monitoring to demonstrate improvements in outcomes (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005).
As RtI is increasingly applied in our schools, research attention has turned to the impact that this process may have upon those at the front lines of its implementation, i.e., teachers and support personnel in schools. As Nunn (2007) has pointed out, effective interventions bring about effective teachers who are skilled and capable of dealing with the difficult academic and behavioral concerns presented in their classrooms. As such, there is a need to define and systematically examine correlates associated with RtI implementation, such as teacher beliefs and perception of results or outcomes of such efforts. The current study will examine concurrent validity between two measures developed by one of the authors which address the need to define elements of efficacy on the part of teachers, as well as associated outcomes expected from implementation of RtI.
Data for this study was gathered from 429 teachers, administrators and support professionals trained in a RtI implementation initiative involving ongoing cohort training cycles over a four year period. Participants represented a continuum of small to large school districts in a western mountain state accepted as RtI implementation pilot sites. Teams received five days of training in RtI best practices which included school-based assignments and on-site follow-up implementation support for using RtI knowledge and skills.
Two measures developed by Nunn were utilized to examine the concurrent relationship of teacher efficacy, i.e. the Teacher Efficacy Belief and Behavior Scale-TEBB (Nunn, 1998) and RtI outcomes, i.e., Indicators of RtI Effectiveness Scale-IRES (Nunn, 1999). Previous research by Nunn has demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency of both measures ranging from . …