L'impact De la Culture Sur le Credit, Les Institutions De Financement et le Droit De la Faillite : Quelques Reflexions Sur le Cas Canadien

By Bilodeau, Jean-Luc | McGill Law Journal, Summer 2009 | Go to article overview

L'impact De la Culture Sur le Credit, Les Institutions De Financement et le Droit De la Faillite : Quelques Reflexions Sur le Cas Canadien


Bilodeau, Jean-Luc, McGill Law Journal


Three cleavages characterize Canadian society: the division of legislative power between the federal and provincial levels; bijuralism, with the presence of a civil law province, Quebec, among the common law provinces; and bilingualism. In their subtle interactions with the particular culture and values of Quebec and the other provinces, these characteristics influence citizens' conceptions of credit, lending institutions, and bankruptcy. Using statistical data as a starting point, the author presents his reflections upon certain differences in Canada relating to credit patterns and the role of lending institutions. He hypothesizes that these differences in behaviour can be explained not only by legal motives, but equally historical and cultural factors.

Thus, while the regulations conceming banks and bankruptcy apply uniformly across Canada, the Quebecois adopt distinct habits related to savings, the use of credit, and insolvency. They make more frequent use of credit unions, institutions that base their operations on the precepts of solidarity and use a model of cooperative control, which coincides with certain provincial values. The Quebecois also experience a growing number of bankruptcies, whose source seems to lie, as in the rest of Canada, in demographic and social transformations that mix the law, culture, and values.

Un triple clivage caracterise la societe canadienne : le partage du pouvoir de legiferer entre le niveau federal et les provinces ; le bijuridisme, avec la presence d'une province de droit civil, le Quebec, parmi des provinces de common law ; et le bilinguisme. En interagissant subtilement avec la culture et les valeurs parficulieres du Quebec et des autres provinces, ces caracteristiques influencent les conceptions qu'ont les citoyens du credit, das institutions de financement et de la faillite. A partir de donnees statistiques, l'auteur presente un apercu de ses reflexions sur certaines differences au sein du Canada quant aux habitudes de credit et au role des institutions financieres. Il estime que les differences de comportement relevees s'expliquent non seulement par des motifs juridiques, mais egalement par des aspects historiques et culturels.

Ainsi, alors que les regles juridiques applicables aux banques et a la faillite s'appliquent uniformement au Canada, les Quebecois adoptent des comportements d'epargne, de recours au credit et d'insolvabilite differents, lis utilisent plus frequemment les cooperatives de credit, dont le fonctionnement repose sur des preceptes de solidarite et dont le mode de controle cooperatif coincide avec certaines valeurs quebecoises. Les Quebecois connaissent egalement un nombre croissant de faillites, dont la source semble resider, comme dans le reste du Canada, dans des transformations demographiques et sociales melangeant droit, culture et valeurs.

Introduction

I. Le droit du credit et des institutions de financement
   au Canada
II. Le droit de la faillite au Canada

Conclusion

Introduction

L'objectif du present article est de traiter du lien entre la culture et le droit dans le contexte particulier du Canada. Plus precisement, notre but est de faire part de nos reflexions a propos de l'incidence de la culture sur le droit canadien sur deux aspects specifiques, a savoir le droit du credit et des institutions de financement, d'une part, et le droit de la faillite, d'autre part.

Traiter du lien entre droit et culture est, a sa face meme, un sujet tres vaste pouvant etre aborde d'une grande diversite de perspectives. A premiere vue, l'incidence des caracteristiques culturelles sur le credit et le recours aux institutions de financement apparait indirecte par rapport a l'impact des regles de droit. La question se pose des lors de savoir si le droit est le reflet de la culture de la societe dont il emane ou s'il est lui-meme un facteur contribuant a forger la culture de cette societe. Une telle influence du droit sur la culture et les valeurs, tant individuelles que collectives, existe-t-elle vraiment ? …

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